BART(8) Maintenance Procedures BART(8)


bart - basic audit reporting tool


/usr/bin/bart create [ -n] [-R root_directory]
[-r rules_file | -]

/usr/bin/bart create [-n] [-R root_directory] -I

/usr/bin/bart compare [-i attribute ] [-p]
[-r rules_file | -] control-manifest test-manifest


bart(8) is a tool that performs a file-level check of the software
contents of a system.

You can also specify the files to track and the types of discrepancies to
flag by means of a rules file, bart_rules. See bart_rules(5).

The bart utility performs two basic functions:

bart create
The manifest generator tool takes a file-level snapshot
of a system. The output is a catalog of file attributes
referred to as a manifest. See bart_manifest(5).

You can specify that the list of files be cataloged in
three ways. Use bart create with no options, specify the
files by name on the command line, or create a rules file
with directives that specify which the files to monitor.
See bart_rules(5).

By default, the manifest generator catalogs all
attributes of all files in the root (/) file system. File
systems mounted on the root file system are cataloged
only if they are of the same type as the root file

For example, /, /usr, and /opt are separate UFS file
systems. /usr and /opt are mounted on /. Therefore, all
three file systems are cataloged. However, /tmp, also
mounted on /, is not cataloged because it is a TMPFS file
system. Mounted CD-ROMs are not cataloged since they are
HSFS file systems.

bart compare
The report tool compares two manifests. The output is a
list of per-file attribute discrepancies. These
discrepancies are the differences between two manifests:
a control manifest and a test manifest.

A discrepancy is a change to any attribute for a given
file cataloged by both manifests. A new file or a deleted
file in a manifest is reported as a discrepancy.

The reporting mechanism provides two types of output:
verbose and programmatic. Verbose output is localized
and presented on multiple lines, while programmatic
output is more easily parsable by other programs. See

By default, the report tool generates verbose output
where all discrepancies are reported except for modified
directory timestamps (dirmtime attribute).

To ensure consistent and accurate comparison results,
control-manifest and test-manifest must be built with the
same rules file.

Use the rules file to ignore specified files or subtrees when you
generate a manifest or compare two manifests. Users can compare manifests
from different perspectives by re-running the bart compare command with
different rules files.


The following options are supported:

-i attribute ...
Specify the file attributes to be ignored globally.
Specify attributes as a comma separated list.

This option produces the same behavior as supplying
the file attributes to a global IGNORE keyword in
the rules file. See bart_rules(5).

-I [file_name...]
Specify the input list of files. The file list can
be specified at the command line or read from
standard input.

Prevent computation of content signatures for all
regular files in the file list.

Display manifest comparison output in ``programmatic
mode,'' which is suitable for programmatic parsing.
The output is not localized.

-r rules_file
Use rules_file to specify which files and
directories to catalog, and to define which file
attribute discrepancies to flag. If rules_file is -,
then the rules are read from standard input. See
bart_rules(5) for the definition of the syntax.

-R root_directory
Specify the root directory for the manifest. All
paths specified by the rules, and all paths reported
in the manifest, are relative to root_directory.

Note -

The root file system of any non-global zones must
not be referenced with the -R option. Doing so
might damage the global zone's file system, might
compromise the security of the global zone, and
might damage the non-global zone's file system.
See zones(7).


bart allows quoting of operands. This is particularly important for
white-space appearing in subtree and subtree modifier specifications.

The following operands are supported:

Specify the manifest created by bart create on the
control system.

Specify the manifest created by bart create on the
test system.


The bart create and bart compare commands write output to standard
output, and write error messages to standard error.

The bart create command generates a system manifest. See

When the bart compare command compares two system manifests, it generates
a list of file differences. By default, the comparison output is
localized. However, if the -p option is specified, the output is
generated in a form that is suitable for programmatic manipulation.

Default Format

attribute control:xxxx test:yyyy

Name of the file that differs between control-manifest and
test-manifest. For file names that contain embedded
whitespace or newline characters, see bart_manifest(5).

The name of the file attribute that differs between the
manifests that are compared. xxxx is the attribute value
from control-manifest, and yyyy is the attribute value from
test-manifest. When discrepancies for multiple attributes
occur for the same file, each difference is noted on a
separate line.

The following attributes are supported:

ACL attributes for the file. For a file with ACL
attributes, this field contains the output from

All attributes.

Checksum value of the file. This attribute is
only specified for regular files. If you turn
off context checking or if checksums cannot be
computed, the value of this field is -.

Destination of a symbolic link.

Value of the device node. This attribute is for
character device files and block device files

Modification time in seconds since 00:00:00 UTC,
January 1, 1970 for directories.

Numerical group ID of the owner of this entry.

Creation time for links.

Octal number that represents the permissions of
the file.

Modification time in seconds since 00:00:00 UTC,
January 1, 1970 for files.

File size in bytes.

Type of file.

Numerical user ID of the owner of this entry.

The following default output shows the attribute differences for the
/etc/passwd file. The output indicates that the size, mtime, and contents
attributes have changed.

size control:74 test:81
mtime control:3c165879 test:3c165979
contents control:daca28ae0de97afd7a6b91fde8d57afa

Programmatic Format

filename attribute control-val test-val [attribute control-val test-val]*


Same as filename in the default format.

attribute control-val test-val

A description of the file attributes that differ between the control
and test manifests for each file. Each entry includes the attribute
value from each manifest. See bart_manifest(5) for the definition of
the attributes.

Each line of the programmatic output describes all attribute differences
for a single file.

The following programmatic output shows the attribute differences for the
/etc/passwd file. The output indicates that the size, mtime, and contents
attributes have changed.

/etc/passwd size 74 81 mtime 3c165879 3c165979
contents daca28ae0de97afd7a6b91fde8d57afa 84b2b32c4165887355317207b48a6ec7


Manifest Generator

The manifest generator returns the following exit values:


Non-fatal error when processing files; for example, permission

Fatal error; for example, invalid command-line options

Report Tool

The report tool returns the following exit values:

No discrepancies reported

Discrepancies found

Fatal error executing comparison


Example 1: Creating a Default Manifest Without Computing Checksums

The following command line creates a default manifest, which consists of
all files in the / file system. The -n option prevents computation of
checksums, which causes the manifest to be generated more quickly.

bart create -n

Example 2: Creating a Manifest for a Specified Subtree

The following command line creates a manifest that contains all files in
the /home/nickiso subtree.

bart create -R /home/nickiso

Example 3: Creating a Manifest by Using Standard Input

The following command line uses output from the find(1) command to
generate the list of files to be cataloged. The find output is used as
input to the bart create command that specifies the -I option.

find /home/nickiso -print | bart create -I

Example 4: Creating a Manifest by Using a Rules File

The following command line uses a rules file, rules, to specify the files
to be cataloged.

bart create -r rules

Example 5: Comparing Two Manifests and Generating Programmatic Output

The following command line compares two manifests and produces output
suitable for parsing by a program.

bart compare -p manifest1 manifest2

Example 6: Comparing Two Manifests and Specifying Attributes to Ignore

The following command line compares two manifests. The dirmtime, lnmtime,
and mtime attributes are not compared.

bart compare -i dirmtime,lnmtime,mtime manifest1 manifest2

Example 7: Comparing Two Manifests by Using a Rules File

The following command line uses a rules file, rules, to compare two

bart compare -r rules manifest1 manifest2


See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

|Interface Stability | Evolving |


cksum(1), digest(1), find(1), bart_manifest(5), bart_rules(5),


The file attributes of certain system libraries can be temporarily
altered by the system as it boots. To avoid triggering false warnings,
you should compare manifests only if they were both created with the
system in the same state; that is, if both were created in single-user or
both in multi-user.

illumos October 26, 2005 BART(8)