TCP(7P) Protocols TCP(7P)

NAME


tcp, TCP - Internet Transmission Control Protocol

SYNOPSIS


#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <netinet/tcp.h>

s = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);
s = socket(AF_INET6, SOCK_STREAM, 0);
t = t_open("/dev/tcp", O_RDWR);
t = t_open("/dev/tcp6", O_RDWR);

DESCRIPTION


TCP is the virtual circuit protocol of the Internet protocol family. It
provides reliable, flow-controlled, in-order, two-way transmission of data.
It is a byte-stream protocol layered above the Internet Protocol (IP), or
the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), the Internet protocol family's
internetwork datagram delivery protocol.

Programs can access TCP using the socket interface as a SOCK_STREAM socket
type, or using the Transport Level Interface (TLI) where it supports the
connection-oriented (BT_COTS_ORD) service type.

A checksum over all data helps TCP provide reliable communication. Using a
window-based flow control mechanism that makes use of positive
acknowledgements, sequence numbers, and a retransmission strategy, TCP can
usually recover when datagrams are damaged, delayed, duplicated or
delivered out of order by the underlying medium.

TCP provides several socket options, defined in <netinet/tcp.h> and
described throughout this document, which may be set using
setsockopt(3SOCKET) and read using getsockopt(3SOCKET). The level argument
for these calls is the protocol number for TCP, available from
getprotobyname(3SOCKET). IP level options may also be used with TCP. See
ip(7P) and ip6(7P).

Listening And Connecting


TCP uses IP's host-level addressing and adds its own per-host collection of
"port addresses". The endpoints of a TCP connection are identified by the
combination of an IPv4 or IPv6 address and a TCP port number. Although
other protocols, such as the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), may use the same
host and port address format, the port space of these protocols is
distinct. See inet(7P) and inet6(7P) for details on the common aspects of
addressing in the Internet protocol family.

Sockets utilizing TCP are either "active" or "passive". Active sockets
initiate connections to passive sockets. Passive sockets must have their
local IPv4 or IPv6 address and TCP port number bound with the bind(3SOCKET)
system call after the socket is created. If an active socket has not been
bound by the time connect(3SOCKET) is called, then the operating system
will choose a local address and port for the application. By default, TCP
sockets are active. A passive socket is created by calling the
listen(3SOCKET) system call after binding, which establishes a queueing
parameter for the passive socket. Connections to the passive socket can
then be received using the accept(3SOCKET) system call. Active sockets use
the connect(3SOCKET) call after binding to initiate connections.

If incoming connection requests include an IP source route option, then the
reverse source route will be used when responding.

By using the special value INADDR_ANY with IPv4, or the unspecified address
(all zeroes) with IPv6, the local IP address can be left unspecified in the
bind() call by either active or passive TCP sockets. This feature is
usually used if the local address is either unknown or irrelevant. If left
unspecified, the local IP address will be bound at connection time to the
address of the network interface used to service the connection. For
passive sockets, this is the destination address used by the connecting
peer. For active sockets, this is usually an address on the same subnet as
the destination or default gateway address, although the rules can be more
complex. See Source Address Selection in inet6(7P) for a detailed
discussion of how this works in IPv6.

Note that no two TCP sockets can be bound to the same port unless the bound
IP addresses are different. IPv4 INADDR_ANY and IPv6 unspecified addresses
compare as equal to any IPv4 or IPv6 address. For example, if a socket is
bound to INADDR_ANY or the unspecified address and port N, no other socket
can bind to port N, regardless of the binding address. This special
consideration of INADDR_ANY and the unspecified address can be changed
using the socket option SO_REUSEADDR. If SO_REUSEADDR is set on a socket
doing a bind, IPv4 INADDR_ANY and the IPv6 unspecified address do not
compare as equal to any IP address. This means that as long as the two
sockets are not both bound to INADDR_ANY, the unspecified address, or the
same IP address, then the two sockets can be bound to the same port.

If an application does not want to allow another socket using the
SO_REUSEADDR option to bind to a port its socket is bound to, the
application can set the socket-level (SOL_SOCKET) option SO_EXCLBIND on a
socket. The option values of 0 and 1 mean enabling and disabling the
option respectively. Once this option is enabled on a socket, no other
socket can be bound to the same port.

Sending And Receiving Data


Once a connection has been established, data can be exchanged using the
read(2) and write(2) system calls. If, after sending data, the local TCP
receives no acknowledgements from its peer for a period of time (for
example, if the remote machine crashes), the connection is closed and an
error is returned.

When a peer is sending data, it will only send up to the advertised
"receive window", which is determined by how much more data the recipient
can fit in its buffer. Applications can use the socket-level option
SO_RCVBUF to increase or decrease the receive buffer size. Similarly, the
socket-level option SO_SNDBUF can be used to allow TCP to buffer more
unacknowledged and unsent data locally.

Under most circumstances, TCP will send data when it is written by the
application. When outstanding data has not yet been acknowledged, though,
TCP will gather small amounts of output to be sent as a single packet once
an acknowledgement has been received. Usually referred to as Nagle's
Algorithm (RFC 896), this behavior helps prevent flooding the network with
many small packets.

However, for some highly interactive clients (such as remote shells or
windowing systems that send a stream of keypresses or mouse events), this
batching may cause significant delays. To disable this behavior, TCP
provides a boolean socket option, TCP_NODELAY.

Conversely, for other applications, it may be desirable for TCP not to send
out any data until a full TCP segment can be sent. To enable this
behavior, an application can use the TCP-level socket option TCP_CORK.
When set to a non-zero value, TCP will only send out a full TCP segment.
When TCP_CORK is set to zero after it has been enabled, all currently
buffered data is sent out (as permitted by the peer's receive window and
the current congestion window).

TCP provides an urgent data mechanism, which may be invoked using the out-
of-band provisions of send(3SOCKET). The caller may mark one byte as
"urgent" with the MSG_OOB flag to send(3SOCKET). This sets an "urgent
pointer" pointing to this byte in the TCP stream. The receiver on the
other side of the stream is notified of the urgent data by a SIGURG signal.
The SIOCATMARK ioctl(2) request returns a value indicating whether the
stream is at the urgent mark. Because the system never returns data across
the urgent mark in a single read(2) call, it is possible to advance to the
urgent data in a simple loop which reads data, testing the socket with the
SIOCATMARK ioctl() request, until it reaches the mark.

Congestion Control


TCP follows the congestion control algorithm described in RFC 2581, and
also supports the initial congestion window (cwnd) changes in RFC 3390.
The initial cwnd calculation can be overridden by the socket option
TCP_INIT_CWND. An application can use this option to set the initial cwnd
to a specified number of TCP segments. This applies to the cases when the
connection first starts and restarts after an idle period. The process
must have the PRIV_SYS_NET_CONFIG privilege if it wants to specify a number
greater than that calculated by RFC 3390.

TCP Keep-Alive
Since TCP determines whether a remote peer is no longer reachable by timing
out waiting for acknowledgements, a host that never sends any new data may
never notice a peer that has gone away. While consumers can avoid this
problem by sending their own periodic heartbeat messages (Transport Layer
Security does this, for example), TCP describes an optional keep-alive
mechanism in RFC 1122. Applications can enable it using the socket-level
option SO_KEEPALIVE. When enabled, the first keep-alive probe is sent out
after a TCP connection is idle for two hours. If the peer does not respond
to the probe within eight minutes, the TCP connection is aborted. An
application can alter the probe behavior using the following TCP-level
socket options:

TCP_KEEPALIVE_THRESHOLD
Determines the interval for sending the first
probe. The option value is specified as an
unsigned integer in milliseconds. The system
default is controlled by the TCP ndd parameter
tcp_keepalive_interval. The minimum value is ten
seconds. The maximum is ten days, while the
default is two hours.

TCP_KEEPALIVE_ABORT_THRESHOLD
If TCP does not receive a response to the probe,
then this option determines how long to wait before
aborting a TCP connection. The option value is an
unsigned integer in milliseconds. The value zero
indicates that TCP should never time out and abort
the connection when probing. The system default is
controlled by the TCP ndd parameter
tcp_keepalive_abort_interval. The default is eight
minutes.

TCP_KEEPIDLE This option, like TCP_KEEPALIVE_THRESHOLD,
determines the interval for sending the first
probe, except that the option value is an unsigned
integer in seconds. It is provided primarily for
compatibility with other Unix flavors.

TCP_KEEPCNT This option specifies the number of keep-alive
probes that should be sent without any response
from the peer before aborting the connection.

TCP_KEEPINTVL This option specifies the interval in seconds
between successive, unacknowledged keep-alive
probes.

Additional Configuration


illumos supports TCP Extensions for High Performance (RFC 7323) which
includes the window scale and timestamp options, and Protection Against
Wrap Around Sequence Numbers (PAWS). Note that if timestamps are
negotiated on a connection, received segments without timestamps on that
connection are silently dropped per the suggestion in the RFC. illumos also
supports Selective Acknowledgment (SACK) capabilities (RFC 2018) and
Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) mechanism (RFC 3168).

Turn on the window scale option in one of the following ways:

+o An application can set SO_SNDBUF or SO_RCVBUF size in the
setsockopt() option to be larger than 64K. This must be done
before the program calls listen() or connect(), because the
window scale option is negotiated when the connection is
established. Once the connection has been made, it is too late
to increase the send or receive window beyond the default TCP
limit of 64K.

+o For all applications, use ndd(1M) to modify the configuration
parameter tcp_wscale_always. If tcp_wscale_always is set to 1,
the window scale option will always be set when connecting to a
remote system. If tcp_wscale_always is 0, the window scale
option will be set only if the user has requested a send or
receive window larger than 64K. The default value of
tcp_wscale_always is 1.

+o Regardless of the value of tcp_wscale_always, the window scale
option will always be included in a connect acknowledgement if
the connecting system has used the option.

Turn on SACK capabilities in the following way:

+o Use ndd to modify the configuration parameter
tcp_sack_permitted. If tcp_sack_permitted is set to 0, TCP
will not accept SACK or send out SACK information. If
tcp_sack_permitted is set to 1, TCP will not initiate a
connection with SACK permitted option in the SYN segment, but
will respond with SACK permitted option in the SYN|ACK segment
if an incoming connection request has the SACK permitted
option. This means that TCP will only accept SACK information
if the other side of the connection also accepts SACK
information. If tcp_sack_permitted is set to 2, it will both
initiate and accept connections with SACK information. The
default for tcp_sack_permitted is 2 (active enabled).

Turn on the TCP ECN mechanism in the following way:

+o Use ndd to modify the configuration parameter
tcp_ecn_permitted. If tcp_ecn_permitted is set to 0, then TCP
will not negotiate with a peer that supports ECN mechanism. If
tcp_ecn_permitted is set to 1 when initiating a connection, TCP
will not tell a peer that it supports ECN mechanism. However,
it will tell a peer that it supports ECN mechanism when
accepting a new incoming connection request if the peer
indicates that it supports ECN mechanism in the SYN segment.
If tcp_ecn_permitted is set to 2, in addition to negotiating
with a peer on ECN mechanism when accepting connections, TCP
will indicate in the outgoing SYN segment that it supports ECN
mechanism when TCP makes active outgoing connections. The
default for tcp_ecn_permitted is 1.

Turn on the timestamp option in the following way:

+o Use ndd to modify the configuration parameter
tcp_tstamp_always. If tcp_tstamp_always is 1, the timestamp
option will always be set when connecting to a remote machine.
If tcp_tstamp_always is 0, the timestamp option will not be set
when connecting to a remote system. The default for
tcp_tstamp_always is 0.

+o Regardless of the value of tcp_tstamp_always, the timestamp
option will always be included in a connect acknowledgement
(and all succeeding packets) if the connecting system has used
the timestamp option.

Use the following procedure to turn on the timestamp option only when the
window scale option is in effect:

+o Use ndd to modify the configuration parameter
tcp_tstamp_if_wscale. Setting tcp_tstamp_if_wscale to 1 will
cause the timestamp option to be set when connecting to a
remote system, if the window scale option has been set. If
tcp_tstamp_if_wscale is 0, the timestamp option will not be set
when connecting to a remote system. The default for
tcp_tstamp_if_wscale is 1.

Protection Against Wrap Around Sequence Numbers (PAWS) is always used when
the timestamp option is set.

The operating system also supports multiple methods of generating initial
sequence numbers. One of these methods is the improved technique suggested
in RFC 1948. We HIGHLY recommend that you set sequence number generation
parameters as close to boot time as possible. This prevents sequence
number problems on connections that use the same connection-ID as ones that
used a different sequence number generation. The
svc:/network/initial:default service configures the initial sequence number
generation. The service reads the value contained in the configuration
file /etc/default/inetinit to determine which method to use.

The /etc/default/inetinit file is an unstable interface, and may change in
future releases.

EXAMPLES


Example 1: Connecting to a server
$ gcc -std=c99 -Wall -lsocket -o client client.c
$ cat client.c
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <netinet/tcp.h>
#include <netdb.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>

int
main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
struct addrinfo hints, *gair, *p;
int fd, rv, rlen;
char buf[1024];
int y = 1;

if (argc != 3) {
fprintf(stderr, "%s <host> <port>\n", argv[0]);
return (1);
}

memset(&hints, 0, sizeof (hints));
hints.ai_family = PF_UNSPEC;
hints.ai_socktype = SOCK_STREAM;

if ((rv = getaddrinfo(argv[1], argv[2], &hints, &gair)) != 0) {
fprintf(stderr, "getaddrinfo() failed: %s\n",
gai_strerror(rv));
return (1);
}

for (p = gair; p != NULL; p = p->ai_next) {
if ((fd = socket(
p->ai_family,
p->ai_socktype,
p->ai_protocol)) == -1) {
perror("socket() failed");
continue;
}

if (connect(fd, p->ai_addr, p->ai_addrlen) == -1) {
close(fd);
perror("connect() failed");
continue;
}

break;
}

if (p == NULL) {
fprintf(stderr, "failed to connect to server\n");
return (1);
}

freeaddrinfo(gair);

if (setsockopt(fd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_KEEPALIVE, &y,
sizeof (y)) == -1) {
perror("setsockopt(SO_KEEPALIVE) failed");
return (1);
}

while ((rlen = read(fd, buf, sizeof (buf))) > 0) {
fwrite(buf, rlen, 1, stdout);
}

if (rlen == -1) {
perror("read() failed");
}

fflush(stdout);

if (close(fd) == -1) {
perror("close() failed");
}

return (0);
}
$ ./client 127.0.0.1 8080
hello
$ ./client ::1 8080
hello

Example 2: Accepting client connections
$ gcc -std=c99 -Wall -lsocket -o server server.c
$ cat server.c
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <netinet/tcp.h>
#include <netdb.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>

void
logmsg(struct sockaddr *s, int bytes)
{
char dq[INET6_ADDRSTRLEN];

switch (s->sa_family) {
case AF_INET: {
struct sockaddr_in *s4 = (struct sockaddr_in *)s;
inet_ntop(AF_INET, &s4->sin_addr, dq, sizeof (dq));
fprintf(stdout, "sent %d bytes to %s:%d\n",
bytes, dq, ntohs(s4->sin_port));
break;
}
case AF_INET6: {
struct sockaddr_in6 *s6 = (struct sockaddr_in6 *)s;
inet_ntop(AF_INET6, &s6->sin6_addr, dq, sizeof (dq));
fprintf(stdout, "sent %d bytes to [%s]:%d\n",
bytes, dq, ntohs(s6->sin6_port));
break;
}
default:
fprintf(stdout, "sent %d bytes to unknown client\n",
bytes);
break;
}
}

int
main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
struct addrinfo hints, *gair, *p;
int sfd, cfd;
int slen, wlen, rv;

if (argc != 3) {
fprintf(stderr, "%s <port> <message>\n", argv[0]);
return (1);
}

slen = strlen(argv[2]);

memset(&hints, 0, sizeof (hints));
hints.ai_family = PF_UNSPEC;
hints.ai_socktype = SOCK_STREAM;
hints.ai_flags = AI_PASSIVE;

if ((rv = getaddrinfo(NULL, argv[1], &hints, &gair)) != 0) {
fprintf(stderr, "getaddrinfo() failed: %s\n",
gai_strerror(rv));
return (1);
}

for (p = gair; p != NULL; p = p->ai_next) {
if ((sfd = socket(
p->ai_family,
p->ai_socktype,
p->ai_protocol)) == -1) {
perror("socket() failed");
continue;
}

if (bind(sfd, p->ai_addr, p->ai_addrlen) == -1) {
close(sfd);
perror("bind() failed");
continue;
}

break;
}

if (p == NULL) {
fprintf(stderr, "server failed to bind()\n");
return (1);
}

freeaddrinfo(gair);

if (listen(sfd, 1024) != 0) {
perror("listen() failed");
return (1);
}

fprintf(stdout, "waiting for clients...\n");

for (int times = 0; times < 5; times++) {
struct sockaddr_storage stor;
socklen_t alen = sizeof (stor);
struct sockaddr *addr = (struct sockaddr *)&stor;

if ((cfd = accept(sfd, addr, &alen)) == -1) {
perror("accept() failed");
continue;
}

wlen = 0;

do {
wlen += write(cfd, argv[2] + wlen, slen - wlen);
} while (wlen < slen);

logmsg(addr, wlen);

if (close(cfd) == -1) {
perror("close(cfd) failed");
}
}

if (close(sfd) == -1) {
perror("close(sfd) failed");
}

fprintf(stdout, "finished.\n");

return (0);
}
$ ./server 8080 $'hello\n'
waiting for clients...
sent 6 bytes to [::ffff:127.0.0.1]:59059
sent 6 bytes to [::ffff:127.0.0.1]:47448
sent 6 bytes to [::ffff:127.0.0.1]:54949
sent 6 bytes to [::ffff:127.0.0.1]:55186
sent 6 bytes to [::1]:62256
finished.

DIAGNOSTICS


A socket operation may fail if:

EISCONN A connect() operation was attempted on a socket on
which a connect() operation had already been
performed.

ETIMEDOUT A connection was dropped due to excessive
retransmissions.

ECONNRESET The remote peer forced the connection to be closed
(usually because the remote machine has lost state
information about the connection due to a crash).

ECONNREFUSED The remote peer actively refused connection
establishment (usually because no process is
listening to the port).

EADDRINUSE A bind() operation was attempted on a socket with a
network address/port pair that has already been
bound to another socket.

EADDRNOTAVAIL A bind() operation was attempted on a socket with a
network address for which no network interface
exists.

EACCES A bind() operation was attempted with a "reserved"
port number and the effective user ID of the
process was not the privileged user.

ENOBUFS The system ran out of memory for internal data
structures.

SEE ALSO


svcs(1), ndd(1M), svcadm(1M), ioctl(2), read(2), write(2), accept(3SOCKET),
bind(3SOCKET), connect(3SOCKET), getprotobyname(3SOCKET),
getsockopt(3SOCKET), listen(3SOCKET), send(3SOCKET), smf(5), inet(7P),
inet6(7P), ip(7P), ip6(7P)

K. Ramakrishnan, S. Floyd, and D. Black, The Addition of Explicit
Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP, RFC 3168, September 2001.

M. Mathias, J. Mahdavi, S. Ford, and A. Romanow, TCP Selective
Acknowledgement Options, RFC 2018, October 1996.

S. Bellovin, Defending Against Sequence Number Attacks, RFC 1948, May 1996.

D. Borman, B. Braden, V. Jacobson, and R. Scheffenegger, Ed., TCP
Extensions for High Performance, RFC 7323, September 2014.

Jon Postel, Transmission Control Protocol - DARPA Internet Program Protocol
Specification, RFC 793, Network Information Center, SRI International,
Menlo Park, CA., September 1981.

NOTES


The tcp service is managed by the service management facility, smf(5),
under the service identifier svc:/network/initial:default.

Administrative actions on this service, such as enabling, disabling, or
requesting restart, can be performed using svcadm(1M). The service's
status can be queried using the svcs(1) command.

illumos January 7, 2019 illumos