PROCESS(4) File Formats and Configurations PROCESS(4)


NAME


process - process contract type

SYNOPSIS


/system/contract/process


DESCRIPTION


Process contracts allow processes to create a fault boundary around a set
of subprocesses and observe events which occur within that boundary.


Process contracts are managed using the contract(4) file system and the
libcontract(3LIB) library. The process contract type directory is
/system/contract/process.

CREATION


A process contract is created when an LWP that has an active process
contract template calls fork(2). Initially, the child process created by
fork() is the only resource managed by the contract. When an LWP that
does not have an active process contract template calls fork(), the child
process created by fork() is added as a resource to the process contract
of which the parent was a member.

EVENT TYPES


The following events types are defined:

CT_PR_EV_EMPTY

The last member of the process contract exited.


CT_PR_EV_FORK

A new process has been added to the process contract.


CT_PR_EV_EXIT

A member of the process contract exited.


CT_PR_EV_CORE

A process failed and dumped core. This could also occur if the
process would have dumped core had appropriate coreadm(1M) options
been enabled and core file size was unlimited.


CT_PR_EV_SIGNAL

A process received a fatal signal from a process, other than the
owner of the process contract, that is a member of a different
process contract.


CT_PR_EV_HWERR

A process was killed because of an uncorrectable hardware error.


TERMS


The following common contract terms, defined in contract(4), have
process-contract specific attributes:

critical event set

The default value for the critical event set is (CT_PR_EV_EMPTY |
CT_PR_EV_HWERR).

An attempt by a user without the {PRIV_CONTRACT_EVENT} privilege in
its effective set to add an event, other than CT_PR_EV_EMPTY, to the
critical event set which is not present in the fatal set, or if the
CT_PR_PGONLY parameter is set and the same user attempts to add any
event, other than CT_PR_EV_EMPTY, to the critical event set, fails.


informative event set

The default value for the informative event set is (CT_PR_EV_CORE |
CT_PR_EV_SIGNAL).


The following contract terms can be read from or written to a process
contract template using the named libcontract(3LIB) interfaces. These
contract terms are in addition to those described in contract(4).

creator's aux

Auxiliary contract description. The purpose of this field is to
provide the contract creator with a way to differentiate process
contracts it creates under the same service FMRI. Use
ct_pr_tmpl_set_svc_aux(3CONTRACT) to set this term. The default
value is an empty string. The contents of this field should be
limited to 7-bit ASCII values.


fatal event set

Defines a set of events which, when generated, causes all members of
the process contract to be killed with SIGKILL, or the intersection
of the contract and the containing process group if the
CT_PR_PGRPONLY parameter is set. Set this term with
ct_pr_tmpl_set_fatal(3CONTRACT). The fatal event set is restricted to
CT_PR_EV_CORE, CT_PR_EV_SIGNAL, and CT_PR_EV_HWERR. For CT_PR_EV_CORE
and CT_PR_EV_SIGNAL events, the scope of SIGKILL is limited to those
processes which the contract author or the event source could have
normally sent signals to.

The default value for the fatal event set is CT_PR_EV_HWERR.

If a user without the {PRIV_CONTRACT_EVENT} privilege in its
effective set removes an event from the fatal event set which is
present in the critical event set, the corresponding event is
automatically removed from the critical event set and added to the
informative event set.


parameter set

Defines miscellaneous other settings. Use
ct_pr_tmpl_set_param(3CONTRACT) to set this term.

The default parameter set is empty.

The value is a bit vector comprised of some or all of:

CT_PR_INHERIT

If set, indicates that the process contract is to be inherited by
the process contract the contract owner is a member of if the
contract owner exits before explicitly abandoning the process
contract.

If not set, the process contract is automatically abandoned when
the owner exits.


CT_PR_NOORPHAN

If set, all processes in a process contract are sent SIGKILL if
the process contract is abandoned, either explicitly or because
the holder died and CT_PR_INHERIT was not set. The scope of
SIGKILL is limited to those processes which the contract author
or the event source could have normally sent signals to.

If this is not set and the process contract is abandoned, the
process contract is orphaned, that is, continues to exist without
owner.


CT_PR_PGRPONLY

If set, only those processes within the same process group and
process contract as a fatal error-generating process are killed.

If not set, all processes within the process contract are killed
if a member process encounters an error specified in the fatal
set.

If a user without the {PRIV_CONTRACT_EVENT} privilege in its
effective set adds CT_PR_PGRPONLY to a template's parameter set,
any events other than CT_PR_EV_EMPTY are automatically removed
from the critical event set and added to the informative event
set.


CT_PR_REGENT

If set, the process contract can inherit unabandoned contracts
left by exiting member processes.

If not set, indicates that the process contract should not
inherit contracts from member processes. If a process exits
before abandoning a contract it owns and is a member of a process
contract which does not have CT_PR_REGENT set, the system
automatically abandons the contract.

If a regent process contract has inherited contracts and is
abandoned by its owner, its inherited contracts are abandoned.


service FMRI

Specifies the service FMRI associated with the process contract. Use
ct_pr_tmpl_set_svc_fmri(3CONTRACT) to set this term. The default is
to inherit the value from the creator's process contract. When this
term is uninitialized, ct_pr_tmpl_get_svc_fmri(3CONTRACT) returns the
token string inherited: to indicate the value has not been set and is
inherited. Setting the service FMRI to inherited: clears the current
(B value and the term is inherited from the creator's process
contract. To set this term a process must have
{PRIV_CONTRACT_IDENTITY} in its effective set.


transfer contract

Specifies the ID of an empty process contract held by the caller
whose inherited process contracts are to be transferred to the newly
created contract. Use ct_pr_tmpl_set_transfer(3CONTRACT) to set the
tranfer contract. Attempts to specify a contract not held by the
calling process, or a contract which still has processes in it, fail.

The default transfer term is 0, that is, no contract.


STATUS


In addition to the standard items, the status object read from a status
file descriptor contains the following items to obtain this information
respectively:

service contract ID

Specifies the process contract id which defined the service FMRI
term. Use ct_pr_status_get_svc_ctid(3CONTRACT) to read the term's
value. It can be used to determine if the service FMRI was inherited
as in the example below.

ctid_t ctid; /* our contract id */
int fd; /* fd of ctid's status file */

ct_stathdl_(Bt status;
ctid_t svc_ctid;

if (ct_status_read(fd, CTD_FIXED, &status) == 0) {
if (ct_pr_status_get_svc_ctid(status, &svc_ctid) == 0) {
if (svc_ctid == ctid)
/* not inherited */
else
/* inherited */
}
ct_status_free(status);
}


If CTD_ALL is specified, the following items are also available:

Member list

The PIDs of processes which are members of the process contract. Use
ct_pr_status_get_members(3CONTRACT) for this information.


Inherited contract list

The IDs of contracts which have been inherited by the process
contract. Use ct_pr_status_get_contracts(3CONTRACT) to obtain this
information.


Service FMRI (term)

Values equal to the terms used when the contract was written. The
Service FMRI term of the process contract of a process en(Btering a
zone has the value svc:/system/zone_enter:default when read from the
non-global zone.


contract creator

Specifies the process that created the process contract. Use
ct_pr_status_get_svc_creator(3CONTRACT) to read the term's value.


creator's aux (term)

Values equal to the terms used when the contract was written.


The following standard status items have different meanings in some
situations:

Ownership state

If the process contract has a state of CTS_OWNED or CTS_INHERITED and
is held by an entity in the global zone, but contains processes in a
non-global zone, it appears to have the state CTS_OWNED when observed
by processes in the non-global zone.


Contract holder

If the process contract has a state of CTS_OWNED or CTS_INHERITED and
is held by an entity in the global zone, but contains processes in a
non-global zone, it appears to be held by the non-global zone's
zsched when observed by processes in the non-global zone.


EVENTS


In addition to the standard items, an event generated by a process
contract contains the following information:

Generating PID

The process ID of the member process which experienced the event, or
caused the contract event to be generated (in the case of
CT_PR_EV_EMPTY). Use ct_pr_event_get_pid(3CONTRACT) to obtain this
information.


If the event type is CT_PR_EV_FORK, the event contains:

Parent PID

The process ID which forked [Generating PID]. Use
ct_pr_event_get_ppid(3CONTRACT) to obtain this information.


If the event type is CT_PR_EV_EXIT, the event contains:

Exit status

The exit status of the process. Use
ct_pr_event_get_exitstatus(3CONTRACT) to obtain this information.


If the event type is CT_PR_EV_CORE, the event can contain:

Process core name

The name of the per-process core file. Use
ct_pr_event_get_pcorefile(3CONTRACT) to obtain this information.


Global core name

The name of the process's zone's global core file. Use
ct_pr_event_get_gcorefile(3CONTRACT) to obtain this information.


Zone core name

The name of the system-wide core file in the global zone. Use
ct_pr_event_get_zcorefile(3CONTRACT) to obtain this information.


See coreadm(1M) for more information about per-process, global, and
system-wide core files.


If the event type is CT_PR_EV_SIGNAL, the event contains:

Signal

The number of the signal which killed the process. Use
ct_pr_event_get_signal(3CONTRACT) to obtain this information.


It can contain:

sender

The PID of the process which sent the signal. Use
ct_pr_event_get_sender(3CONTRACT) to obtain this information.


FILES


/usr/include/sys/contract/process.h

Contains definitions of event-type macros.


SEE ALSO


ctrun(1), ctstat(1), ctwatch(1), coreadm(1M), close(2), fork(2),
ioctl(2), open(2), poll(2), ct_pr_event_get_exitstatus(3CONTRACT),
ct_pr_event_get_gcorefile(3CONTRACT),
ct_pr_event_get_pcorefile(3CONTRACT), ct_pr_event_get_pid(3CONTRACT),
ct_pr_event_get_ppid(3CONTRACT), ct_pr_event_get_signal(3CONTRACT),
ct_pr_event_get_zcorefile(3CONTRACT),
ct_pr_status_get_contracts(3CONTRACT),
ct_pr_status_get_members(3CONTRACT), ct_pr_status_get_param(3CONTRACT),
ct_pr_tmpl_set_fatal(3CONTRACT), ct_pr_tmpl_set_param(3CONTRACT),
ct_pr_tmpl_set_transfer(3CONTRACT), ct_tmpl_set_cookie(3CONTRACT),
ct_tmpl_set_critical(3CONTRACT), ct_tmpl_set_informative(3CONTRACT),
libcontract(3LIB), contract(4), privileges(5)


March 25, 2008 PROCESS(4)