PAM.CONF(4) File Formats and Configurations PAM.CONF(4)


NAME


pam.conf - configuration file for pluggable authentication modules

SYNOPSIS


/etc/pam.conf


DESCRIPTION


pam.conf is the configuration file for the Pluggable Authentication
Module architecture, or PAM. A PAM module provides functionality for one
or more of four possible services: authentication, account management,
session management, and password management.

authentication service module

Provides functionality to authenticate a user and set up user
credentials.


account management module

Provides functionality to determine if the current user's account is
valid. This includes checking for password and account expiration,
as well as verifying access hour restrictions.


session management module

Provides functionality to set up and terminate login sessions.


password management module

Provides functionality to change a user's authentication token or
password.


Each of the four service modules can be implemented as a shared library
object which can be referenced in the pam.conf configuration file.

Simplified pam.conf Configuration File
The pam.conf file contains a listing of services. Each service is paired
with a corresponding service module. When a service is requested, its
associated module is invoked. Each entry may be a maximum of 256
characters, including the end of line, and has the following format:

service_name module_type control_flag module_path options


The following is an example of a pam.conf configuration file with support
for authentication, account management, session management and password
management modules (See the pam.conf file that is shipped with your
system for the contents of this file):

login auth requisite pam_authtok_get.so.1
login auth required pam_dhkeys.so.1
login auth required pam_unix_auth.so.1
login auth required pam_dial_auth.so.1

other account requisite pam_roles.so.1
other account required pam_unix_account.so.1

other session required pam_unix_session.so.1

other password required pam_dhkeys.so.1
other password requisite pam_authtok_get.so.1
other password requisite pam_authtok_check.so.1
other password required pam_authtok_store.so.1


service_name denotes the service (for example, login, dtlogin, or
rlogin).


The keyword, "other," indicates the module that all other applications
which have not been specified should use. The "other" keyword can also be
used if all services of the same module_type have the same requirements.


In the example, since all of the services use the same session module,
they could have been replaced by a single other line.


module_type denotes the service module type: authentication (auth),
account management (account), session management (session), or password
management (password).


The control_flag field determines the behavior of stacking.


The module_path field specifies the relative pathname to a shared library
object, or an included PAM configuration file, which implements the
service functionality. If the pathname is not absolute, shared library
objects are assumed to be relative to /usr/lib/security/$ISA/, and
included PAM configuration files are assumed to be relative to
/usr/lib/security/.


The ISA token is replaced by an implementation defined directory name
which defines the path relative to the calling program's instruction set
architecture.


The options field is used by the PAM framework layer to pass module
specific options to the modules. It is up to the module to parse and
interpret the options.


This field can be used by the modules to turn on debugging or to pass any
module specific parameters such as a TIMEOUT value. The options supported
by the modules are documented in their respective manual pages.

Integrating Multiple Authentication Services With Stacking


When a service_name of the same module_type is defined more than once,
the service is said to be stacked. Each module referenced in the
module_path for that service is then processed in the order that it
occurs in the configuration file. The control_flag field specifies the
continuation and failure semantics of the modules, and can contain one of
the following values:

binding
If the service module returns success and no preceding
required modules returned failures, immediately return
success without calling any subsequent modules. If a
failure is returned, treat the failure as a required module
failure, and continue to process the PAM stack.


include
Process the lines from the PAM configuration file that is
specified in the module_path at this point in the PAM
stack. The ``other'' keyword is used if the specified
service_name is not found. 32 levels of included PAM
configuration files are supported. Any options are ignored.


optional
If the service module returns success, record the success,
and continue to process the PAM stack. If a failure is
returned, and it is the first optional module failure, save
the failure code as an optional failure. Continue to
process the PAM stack.


required
If the service module returns success, record the success,
and continue to process the PAM stack. If a failure is
returned, and it is the first required failure, save the
failure code as a required failure. Continue to process
the PAM stack.


requisite
If the service module returns success, record the success,
and continue to process the PAM stack. If a failure is
returned, immediately return the first non-optional failure
value recorded without calling any subsequent modules. That
is, return this failure unless a previous required service
module failed. If a previous required service module
failed, then return the first of those values.


sufficient
If the service module return success and no preceding
required modules returned failures, immediately return
success without calling any subsequent modules. If a
failure is returned, treat the failure as an optional
module failure, and continue to process the PAM stack.


If the PAM stack runs to completion, that is, neither a requisite module
failed, nor a binding or sufficient module success stops it, success is
returned if no required modules failed and at least one required,
requisite, optional module succeeded. If no module succeeded and a
required or binding module failed, the first of those errors is returned.
If no required or binding module failed and an optional module failed,
the first of the option module errors is returned. If no module in the
stack succeeded or failed, that is, all modules returned an ignore
status, a default error based on module type, for example, "User account
expired," is returned.


All errors in pam.conf entries are logged to syslog as LOG_AUTH | LOG_ERR
errors. The use of a service with an error noted in the pam.conf entry
for that service will fail. The system administrator will need to correct
the noted errors before that service may be used. If no services are
available or the pam.conf file is missing, the system administrator may
enter system maintenance mode to correct or restore the file.


The following is a sample configuration file that stacks the su, login,
and rlogin services.

su auth required pam_inhouse.so.1
su auth requisite pam_authtok_get.so.1
su auth required pam_dhkeys.so.1
su auth required pam_unix_auth.so.1

login auth requisite pam_authtok_get.so.1
login auth required pam_dhkeys.so.1
login auth required pam_unix_auth.so.1
login auth required pam_dial_auth.so.1
login auth optional pam_inhouse.so.1

rlogin auth sufficient pam_rhosts_auth.so.1
rlogin auth requisite pam_authtok_get.so.1
rlogin auth required pam_dhkeys.so.1
rlogin auth required pam_unix_auth.so.1


In the case of su, the user is authenticated by the inhouse and
authtok_get, dhkeys, and unix_auth authentication modules. Because the
inhouse and the other authentication modules are required and requisite,
respectively, an error is returned back to the application if any module
fails. In addition, if the requisite authentication (pam_authtok_get
authentication) fails, the other authentication modules are never
invoked, and the error is returned immediately back to the application.


In the case of login, the required keyword for control_flag requires that
the user be allowed to login only if the user is authenticated by all the
service modules. If pam_unix_auth authentication fails, control continues
to proceed down the stack, and the inhouse authentication module is
invoked. inhouse authentication is optional by virtue of the optional
keyword in the control_flag field. The user can still log in even if
inhouse authentication fails, assuming the modules stacked above
succeeded.


In the case of rlogin, the sufficient keyword for control_flag specifies
that if the rhosts authentication check succeeds, then PAM should return
success to rlogin and rlogin should not prompt the user for a password.
The other authentication modules, which are in the stack, will only be
invoked if the rhosts check fails. This gives the system administrator
the flexibility to determine if rhosts alone is sufficient enough to
authenticate a remote user.


Some modules return PAM_IGNORE in certain situations. In these cases the
PAM framework ignores the entire entry in pam.conf regardless of whether
or not it is binding, requisite, required, optional, or sufficient.

Utilities and Files


The specific service names and module types for each service should be
documented in the man page for that service. For instance, the sshd(1M)
man page lists all of the PAM service names and module types for the sshd
command.


The PAM configuration file does not dictate either the name or the
location of the service specific modules. The convention, however, is the
following:

pam_module_name.so.x
File that implements various function of
specific authentication services. As the
relative pathname specified,
/usr/lib/security/$ISA is prepended to it.


/etc/pam.conf
Configuration file


/usr/lib/$ISA/libpam.so.1
File that implements the PAM framework
library


EXAMPLES


Example 1: Using the include control flag




The following example collects the common Unix modules into a single file
to be included as needed in the example of a pam.conf file. The common
Unix module file is named unix_common and consists of:


OTHER auth requisite pam_authtok_get.so.1
OTHER auth required pam_dhkeys.so.1
OTHER auth required pam_unix_auth.so.1
OTHER auth required pam_unix_cred.so.1
OTHER account requisite pam_roles.so.1
OTHER account required pam_unix_account.so.1
OTHER session required pam_unix_session.so.1
OTHER password required pam_dhkeys.so.1
OTHER password requisite pam_authtok_get.so.1
OTHER password requisite pam_authtok_check.so.1
OTHER password required pam_authtok_store.so.1


The pam.conf file and consists of:


# Authentication management
#
# login service (explicit because of pam_dial_auth)
#
login auth include unix_common
login auth required pam_dial_auth.so.1
#
# rlogin service (explicit because of pam_rhost_auth)
#
rlogin auth sufficient pam_rhosts_auth.so.1
rlogin auth include unix_common
#
# Default definitions for Authentication management
# Used when service name is not explicitly mentioned
#
OTHER auth include unix_common
#
# Default definition for Account management
# Used when service name is not explicitly mentioned
#
OTHER account include unix_common
#
# Default definition for Session management
# Used when service name is not explicitly mentioned
#
OTHER session include unix_common
#
# Default definition for Password management
# Used when service name is not explicitly mentioned
#
OTHER password include unix_common


ATTRIBUTES


See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:


+--------------------+-----------------+
| ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
+--------------------+-----------------+
|Interface Stability | See Below. |
+--------------------+-----------------+


The format is Stable. The contents has no stability attributes.

SEE ALSO


login(1), passwd(1), in.rlogind(1M), in.rshd(1M), in.telnetd(1M),
in.uucpd(1M), init(1M), sac(1M), ttymon(1M), su(1M), pam(3PAM),
syslog(3C), libpam(3LIB), attributes(5), environ(5),
pam_authtok_check(5), pam_authtok_get(5), pam_authtok_store(5),
pam_dhkeys(5), pam_krb5(5), pam_passwd_auth(5), pam_unix_account(5),
pam_unix_auth(5), pam_unix_session(5)

NOTES


The pam_unix module is no longer supported. Similar functionality is
provided by pam_authtok_check(5), pam_authtok_get(5),
pam_authtok_store(5), pam_dhkeys(5), pam_passwd_auth(5),
pam_unix_account(5), pam_unix_auth(5), and pam_unix_session(5).


With the removal of the pam_unix module, the SunOS delivered PAM service
modules no longer need or support the "use_first_pass" or
"try_first_pass" options. This functionality is provided by stacking
pam_authtok_get(5) above a module that requires a password.


March 4, 2017 PAM.CONF(4)