REGEXPR(3GEN) String Pattern-Matching Library Functions REGEXPR(3GEN)


NAME


regexpr, compile, step, advance - regular expression compile and match
routines

SYNOPSIS


cc [flag]... [file]... -lgen [library]...


#include <regexpr.h>

char *compile(char *instring, char *expbuf, const char *endbuf);


int
step(const char *string, const char *expbuf);


int
advance(const char *string, const char *expbuf);


extern char *loc1, loc2, locs;


extern int nbra, regerrno, reglength;


extern char *braslist[], *braelist[];


DESCRIPTION


These routines are used to compile regular expressions and match the
compiled expressions against lines. The regular expressions compiled are
in the form used by ed(1).


The parameter instring is a null-terminated string representing the
regular expression.


The parameter expbuf points to the place where the compiled regular
expression is to be placed. If expbuf is NULL, compile() uses malloc(3C)
to allocate the space for the compiled regular expression. If an error
occurs, this space is freed. It is the user's responsibility to free
unneeded space after the compiled regular expression is no longer needed.


The parameter endbuf is one more than the highest address where the
compiled regular expression may be placed. This argument is ignored if
expbuf is NULL. If the compiled expression cannot fit in (endbuf-expbuf)
bytes, compile() returns NULL and regerrno (see below) is set to 50.


The parameter string is a pointer to a string of characters to be
checked for a match. This string should be null-terminated.


The parameter expbuf is the compiled regular expression obtained by a
call of the function compile().


The function step() returns non-zero if the given string matches the
regular expression, and zero if the expressions do not match. If there
is a match, two external character pointers are set as a side effect to
the call to step(). The variables set in step() are loc1 and loc2. loc1
is a pointer to the first character that matched the regular expression.
The variable loc2 points to the character after the last character that
matches the regular expression. Thus if the regular expression matches
the entire line, loc1 points to the first character of string and loc2
points to the null at the end of string.


The purpose of step() is to step through the string argument until a
match is found or until the end of string is reached. If the regular
expression begins with ^, step() tries to match the regular expression at
the beginning of the string only.


The advance() function is similar to step(); but, it only sets the
variable loc2 and always restricts matches to the beginning of the
string.


If one is looking for successive matches in the same string of
characters, locs should be set equal to loc2, and step() should be called
with string equal to loc2. locs is used by commands like ed and sed so
that global substitutions like s/y*//g do not loop forever, and is NULL
by default.


The external variable nbra is used to determine the number of
subexpressions in the compiled regular expression. braslist and braelist
are arrays of character pointers that point to the start and end of the
nbra subexpressions in the matched string. For example, after calling
step() or advance() with string sabcdefg and regular expression
\(abcdef\), braslist[0] will point at a and braelist[0] will point at g.
These arrays are used by commands like ed and sed for substitute
replacement patterns that contain the \n notation for subexpressions.


Note that it is not necessary to use the external variables regerrno,
nbra, loc1, loc2 locs, braelist, and braslist if one is only checking
whether or not a string matches a regular expression.

EXAMPLES


Example 1: The following is similar to the regular expression code from


grep:

#include<regexpr.h>
...
if(compile(*argv, (char *)0, (char *)0) == (char *)0)
regerr(regerrno);
...
if (step(linebuf, expbuf))
succeed();


RETURN VALUES


If compile() succeeds, it returns a non-NULL pointer whose value depends
on expbuf. If expbuf is non-NULL, compile() returns a pointer to the
byte after the last byte in the compiled regular expression. The length
of the compiled regular expression is stored in reglength. Otherwise,
compile() returns a pointer to the space allocated by malloc(3C).


The functions step() and advance() return non-zero if the given string
matches the regular expression, and zero if the expressions do not match.

ERRORS


If an error is detected when compiling the regular expression, a NULL
pointer is returned from compile() and regerrno is set to one of the non-
zero error numbers indicated below:


ERROR MEANING
11 Range endpoint too large.
16 Bad Number.
25 "\digit" out or range.
36 Illegal or missing delimiter.
41 No remembered string search.
42 \(~\) imbalance.
43 Too many \(.
44 More than 2 numbers given in \[~\}.
45 } expected after \.
46 First number exceeds second in \{~\}.
49 [] imbalance.
50 Regular expression overflow.


ATTRIBUTES


See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:


+---------------+-----------------+
|ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
+---------------+-----------------+
|MT-Level | MT-Safe |
+---------------+-----------------+

SEE ALSO


ed(1), grep(1), sed(1), malloc(3C), attributes(5), regexp(5)

NOTES


When compiling multi-threaded applications, the _REENTRANT flag must be
defined on the compile line. This flag should only be used in multi-
threaded applications.


December 29, 1996 REGEXPR(3GEN)