AR.H(3HEAD) Headers AR.H(3HEAD)
ar.h, ar - archive file format
The archive command ar
is used to combine several files into one.
Archives are used mainly as libraries to be searched by the link editor ld
Each archive begins with the archive magic string.
#define ARMAG "!<arch>\n" /* magic string */
#define SARMAG 8 /* length of magic string */
Following the archive magic string are the archive file members. Each
file member is preceded by a file member header which is of the following
#define ARFMAG "`\n" /* header trailer string */
struct ar_hdr /* file member header */
char ar_name; /* '/' terminated file member name */
char ar_date; /* file member date */
char ar_uid /* file member user identification */
char ar_gid /* file member group identification */
char ar_mode /* file member mode (octal) */
char ar_size; /* file member size */
char ar_fmag; /* header trailer string */
All information in the file member headers is in printable ASCII.
numeric information contained in the headers is stored as decimal numbers
(except for ar_mode
which is in octal). Thus, if the archive contains
printable files, the archive itself is printable.
If the file member name fits, the ar_name
field contains the name
directly, and is terminated by a slash (/
) and padded with blanks on the
right. If the member's name does not fit, ar_name
contains a slash (/
followed by a decimal representation of the name's offset in the archive
string table described below.
field is the modification date of the file at the time of its
insertion into the archive. Common format archives can be moved from
system to system as long as the portable archive command ar
Each archive file member begins on an even byte boundary; a newline is
inserted between files if necessary. Nevertheless, the size given
reflects the actual size of the file exclusive of padding.
Notice there is no provision for empty areas in an archive file.
Each archive that contains object files (see a.out(5)
) includes an
archive symbol table. This symbol table is used by the link editor ld
determine which archive members must be loaded during the link edit
process. The archive symbol table (if it exists) is always the first
file in the archive (but is never listed) and is automatically created
and/or updated by ar
The archive symbol table has a zero length name (that is, ar_name
), ar_name==' '
, etc.). All ``words'' in this symbol table have
four bytes, using the machine-independent encoding shown below. All
machines use the encoding described here for the symbol table, even if
the machine's ``natural'' byte order is different.
0 1 2 3
0x01020304 01 02 03 04
The contents of this file are as follows:
1. The number of symbols. Length: 4 bytes.
2. The array of offsets into the archive file. Length: 4 bytes *
``the number of symbols''.
3. The name string table. Length: ar_size
- 4 bytes * (``the
number of symbols'' + 1).
As an example, the following symbol table defines 4 symbols. The archive
member at file offset 114 defines name
. The archive member at file offset
122 defines object
. The archive member at file offset 426 defines function
and the archive member at file offset 434 defines name2
Example Symbol Table
Offset +0 +1 +2 +3
0 | 4 | 4 offset entries
4 | 114 | name
8 | 122 | object
12 | 426 | function
16 | 434 | name2
20 | n | a | m | e |
24 | \0 | o | b | j |
28 | e | c | t | \0 |
32 | f | u | n | c |
36 | t | i | o | n |
40 | \0 | n | a | m |
44 | e | 2 | \0 | |
The string table contains exactly as many null terminated strings as
there are elements in the offsets array. Each offset from the array is
associated with the corresponding name from the string table (in order).
The names in the string table are all the defined global symbols found in
the common object files in the archive. Each offset is the location of
the archive header for the associated symbol.
If some archive member's name is more than 15 bytes long, a special
archive member contains a table of file names, each followed by a slash
and a new-line. This string table member, if present, will precede all
``normal'' archive members. The special archive symbol table is not a
``normal'' member, and must be first if it exists. The ar_name
the string table's member header holds a zero length name ar_name=='/'
, followed by one trailing slash (ar_name=='/'
followed by blanks (ar_name==' '
, etc.). Offsets into the string table
begin at zero. Example ar_name
values for short and long file names
Offset +0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 +9
0 | f | i | l | e | _ | n | a | m | e | _ |
10 | s | a | m | p | l | e | / | \n | l | o |
20 | n | g | e | r | f | i | l | e | n | a |
30 | m | e | x | a | m | p | l | e | / | \n |
Member Name ar_name
short-name | short-name/ | Not in string table
file_name_sample | /0 | Offset 0 in string table
longerfilenamexample | /18 | Offset 18 in string table
SEE ALSO ar(1)
utility will remove all archive symbol entries from the header.
The archive symbol entries must be restored with the -ts
options of the ar
command before the archive can be used with the link editor ld
July 1, 1998 AR.H(3HEAD)