FLOCK(3C) Standard C Library Functions FLOCK(3C)


flock - OFD(open file description)-style file locking


#include <sys/file.h>

int flock(int fildes, int operation);


The flock() function allows advisory locks to be applied to and removed
from a file. Calls to flock() from callers that attempt to lock the
locked file section via a different open file handle will either return
an error value or be put to sleep until the resource becomes unlocked.
See fcntl(2) for more information about record locking. Locks created or
removed via this function will apply to the entire file, including any
future growth in the file's length.

The fildes argument is an open file descriptor. A lock can be established
without regard for the mode with which the file was opened.

The operation argument is a control value that specifies the action to be
taken. The permissible values for operation are defined in <sys/file.h>
as follows:

#define LOCK_SH 1 /* shared file lock */
#define LOCK_EX 2 /* exclusive file lock */
#define LOCK_NB 4 /* do not block when attempting to create lock */
#define LOCK_UN 8 /* remove existing file lock */

To create a lock, either LOCK_SH or LOCK_EX should be specified,
optionally bitwise-ored with LOCK_NB. To remove a lock, LOCK_UN should
be specified. All other values of operation are reserved for future
extensions and will result in an error if not implemented.

This function creates, upgrades, downgrades, or removes either shared or
exclusive OFD-style locks. Locks created by this function are owned by
open files, not file descriptors. That is, file descriptors duplicated
through dup(2), fork(2), or fcntl(2) do not result in multiple instances
of a lock, but rather multiple references to the same lock. If a process
holding a lock on a file forks and the child explicitly unlocks the file,
the parent will lose its lock. See fcntl(2) for more information about
file locking and the interaction between locks created by this function
and those created by other mechanisms. These locks are currently not
supported over remote file systems (e.g. nfs(5)) which use the Network
Lock Manager.

Sleeping on a resource is interrupted with any signal. The alarm(2)
function may be used to provide a timeout facility in applications that
require this facility.


Upon successful completion, 0 is returned. Otherwise, -1 is returned and
errno is set to indicate the error.


The flock() function will fail if:

The fildes argument is not a valid open file
descriptor; or operation contains LOCK_SH and filedes
is not open for reading; or operation contains
LOCK_EX and filedes is not open for writing.

The operation argument contains LOCK_NB and a
conflicting lock exists.

A signal was caught during execution of the function.

The operation argument does not contain one of
LOCK_SH, LOCK_EX, or LOCK_UN; or the operation
argument contains LOCK_UN and LOCK_NB; or the
operation argument contains any bits other than those

The flock() function may fail if:

The operation argument contains LOCK_SH or
LOCK_EX and the file is mapped with mmap(2).

The number of locked file regions in the system would
exceed a system-imposed limit.

The locking of files of the type indicated by the
fildes argument is not supported.


File-locking should not be used in combination with the fopen(3C),
fread(3C), fwrite(3C) and other stdio functions. Instead, the more
primitive, non-buffered functions (such as open(2)) should be used.
Unexpected results may occur in processes that do buffering in the user
address space. The process may later read/write data which is/was
locked. The stdio functions are the most common source of unexpected

The alarm(2) function may be used to provide a timeout facility in
applications requiring it.

Locks created by this facility conflict with those created by the
lockf(3C) and fcntl(2) facilities. This facility creates and removed
OFD-style locks; see fcntl(2) for information about the interaction
between OFD-style and POSIX-style file locks.


See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

|Interface Stability | Standard |
|MT-Level | MT-Safe |


Intro(2), alarm(2), chmod(2), close(2), creat(2), fcntl(2), mmap(2),
open(2), read(2), write(2), attributes(7), standards(7)

February 16, 2015 FLOCK(3C)