LDAPCLIENT(1M) Maintenance Commands LDAPCLIENT(1M)


NAME


ldapclient - initialize LDAP client machine or output an LDAP client
profile in LDIF format

SYNOPSIS


/usr/sbin/ldapclient [-v | -q] init [-a profileName=profileName]
[-a domainName=domain] [-a proxyDN=proxyDN]
[-a proxyPassword=password]
[-a authenticationMethod=authenticationMethod]
[-a enableShadowUpdate=true | false]
[-a adminDN=adminDN]
[-a adminPassword=adminPassword]
[-a certificatePath=path] [-d bindDN] [-w bindPassword]
[-j passwdFile] [-y passwdFile]
[-z adminrPasswdFile] LDAP_server[:port_number]


/usr/sbin/ldapclient [-v | -q] manual [-a attrName=attrVal]


/usr/sbin/ldapclient [-v | -q] mod [-a attrName=attrVal]


/usr/sbin/ldapclient [-v | -q] list


/usr/sbin/ldapclient [-v | -q] uninit


/usr/sbin/ldapclient [-v | -q] genprofile -a profileName=profileName
[-a attrName=attrVal]


DESCRIPTION


The ldapclient utility can be used to:

o initialize LDAP client machines

o restore the network service environment on LDAP clients

o list the contents of the LDAP client cache in human readable
format.


The init form of the ldapclient utility is used to initialize an LDAP
client machine, using a profile stored on an LDAP server specified by
LDAP_server. The LDAP client will use the attributes in the specified
profile to determine the configuration of the LDAP client. Using a
configuration profile allows for easy installation of LDAP client and
propagation of configuration changes to LDAP clients. The
ldap_cachemgr(1M) utility will update the LDAP client configuration when
its cache expires by reading the profile. For more information on the
configuration profile refer to IETF document A Configuration Schema for
LDAP Based Directory User Agents.


The manual form of the ldapclient utility is used to initialize an LDAP
client machine manually. The LDAP client will use the attributes
specified on the command line. Any unspecified attributes will be
assigned their default values. At least one server must be specified in
the defaultServerList or the preferredServerList attributes.The
domainName attribute must be specified if the client's domainName is not
set.


The mod form of the ldapclient utility is used to modify the
configuration of an LDAP client machine that was setup manually. This
option modifies only those LDAP client configuration attributes specified
on the command line. The mod option should only be used on LDAP clients
that were initialized using the manual option.


Regardless of which method is used for initialization, if a client is to
be configured to use a proxy credentialLevel, proxy credentials must be
provided using -a proxyDN=proxyDN and -a proxyPassword=proxyPassword
options. However, if -a proxyPassword=proxyPassword is not specified,
ldapclient will prompt for it. Note that NULL passwords are not allowed
in LDAP. If a self credentialLevel is configured, authenticationMethod
must be sasl/GSSAPI.


Similarily, if a client is to be configured to enable shadow information
update and use a proxy credentialLevel, administrator credentials must be
provided using -a adminDN=adminDN and -a adminPassword=adminPassword.
However, the shadow information update does not need the administrator
credentials if a self credentialLevel is configured.


If any file is modified during installation, it will be backed up to
/var/ldap/restore. The files that are typically modified during
initialization are:

o /etc/nsswitch.conf

o /etc/defaultdomain (if it exists)

o /var/yp/binding/`domainname` (for a NIS(YP) client)

o /var/ldap/ldap_client_file (for an existing LDAP client)

o /var/ldap/ldap_client_cred (for an existing LDAP client)


ldapclient does not set up a client to resolve hostnames using DNS. It
simply copies /etc/nsswitch.ldap to /etc/nsswitch.conf. If you prefer to
use DNS for host resolution, please refer to the DNS documentation for
information on setting up DNS. See resolv.conf(4). If you want to use
sasl/GSSAPI as the authentication method, you have to use DNS for hosts
and ipnodes resolution.


The list form of the ldapclient utility is used to list the LDAP client
configuration. The output will be human readable. LDAP configuration
files are not guaranteed to be human readable. Note that for security
reason, the values for adminDN and adminPassword will not be displayed.


The uninit form of the ldapclient utility is used to uninitialize the
network service environment, restoring it to the state it was in prior to
the last execution of ldapclient using init or manual. The restoration
will succeed only if the machine was initialized with the init or manual
form of ldapclient, as it uses the backup files created by these options.


The genprofile option is used to write an LDIF formatted configuration
profile based on the attributes specified on the command line to standard
output. This profile can then be loaded into an LDAP server to be used as
the client profile, which can be downloaded by means of the ldapclient
init command. Loading the LDIF formatted profile to the directory server
can be done through ldapadd(1), or through any server specific import
tool. Note that the attributes proxyDN, proxyPassword, certificatePath,
domainName, enableShadowUpdate, adminDN, and adminPassword are not part
of the configuration profile and thus are not permitted.


You must have superuser privileges to run the ldapclient command, except
with the genprofile option.


To access the information stored in the directory, clients can either
authenticate to the directory, or use an unauthenticated connection. The
LDAP client is configured to have a credential level of either anonymous
or proxy. In the first case, the client does not authenticate to the
directory. In the second case, client authenticates to the directory
using a proxy identity for read access, and using a administrator
identity for write access if enableShadowUpdate is configured. In the
third case, client authenticates to the directory using a Kerberos
principal that is mapped to an LDAP identity by the LDAP server. Refer to
the chapter on implementing security in the System Administration Guide:
Naming and Directory Services (DNS, NIS, and LDAP) or your appropriate
directory server documentation for identity mapping details.


If a client is configured to use an identity, you can configure which
authentication method the client will use. The LDAP client supports the
following authentication methods:
none
simple
sasl/CRAM-MD5
sasl/DIGEST-MD5
sasl/GSSAPI
tls:none
tls:simple
tls:sasl/CRAM-MD5
tls:sasl/DIGEST-MD5


Note that some directory servers may not support all of these
authentication methods. For simple, be aware that the bind password will
be sent in the clear to the LDAP server. For those authentication methods
using TLS (transport layer security), the entire session is encrypted.
You will need to install the appropriate certificate databases to use
TLS. Note that the tls:none authentication method requires a
credentialLevel of proxy to take effect.

Commands


The following commands are supported:

init

Initialize client from a profile on a server.


manual

Manually initialize client with the specified attribute values.


mod

Modify attribute values in the configuration file after a manual
initialization of the client.


list

Write the contents of the LDAP client cache to standard output in
human readable form.


uninit

Uninitialize an LDAP client, assuming that ldapclient was used to
initialize the client.


genprofile

Generate a configuration profile in LDIF format that can then be
stored in the directory for clients to use, with the init form of
this command.


Attributes


The following attributes are supported:

adminDN

Specify the Bind Distinguished Name for the administrator identity
that is used for shadow information update. This option is required
if the credential level is proxy, and enableShadowUpdate is set to
true. There is no default value.


adminPassword

Specify the administrator password. This option is required if the
credential level is proxy, and enableShadowUpdate is set to true.
There is no default value.


attributeMap

Specify a mapping from an attribute defined by a service to an
attribute in an alternative schema. This can be used to change the
default schema used for a given service. The syntax of attributeMap
is defined in the profile IETF draft. This option can be specified
multiple times. The default value for all services is NULL. In the
example,

attributeMap: passwd:uid=employeeNumber


the LDAP client would use the LDAP attribute employeeNumber rather
than uid for the passwd service. This is a multivalued attribute.

To use rfc2307bis style groups (with a DN rather than username as the
attribute value), map the memberUid attribute to the group attribute
being used (typically either uniqueMember or member), for example:

attributeMap: group:memberUid=uniqueMember


Group membership in a given directory is expected to be maintained
with either username format member attributes, or DN format member
attributes. If both are present they must describe identical
memberships or unexpected results may be obtained. For DN format
attributes, the username is required to be the RDN of the entry. Note
that nested groups are not currently supported, and unexpected
results may be obtained if they are used.


authenticationMethod

Specify the default authentication method used by all services unless
overridden by the serviceAuthenticationMethod attribute. Multiple
values can be specified by using a semicolon-separated list. The
default value is none. For those services that use credentialLevel
and credentialLevel is anonymous, this attribute is ignored. Services
such as pam_ldap will use this attribute, even if credentialLevel is
anonymous. The supported authentication methods are described above.
If the authenticationMethod is sasl/GSSAPI, the hosts and ipnodes of
/etc/nsswitch.conf must be configured with DNS support, for example:

hosts: dns files
ipnodes: dns files


bindTimeLimit

The maximum time in seconds that a client should spend performing a
bind operation. Set this to a positive integer. The default value is
30.


certificatePath

The certificate path for the location of the certificate database.
The value is the path where security database files reside. This is
used for TLS support, which is specified in the authenticationMethod
and serviceAuthenticationMethod attributes. The default is /var/ldap.


credentialLevel

Specify the credential level the client should use to contact the
directory. The credential levels supported are either anonymous or
proxy. If a proxy credential level is specified, then the
authenticationMethod attribute must be specified to determine the
authentication mechanism. Also, if the credential level is proxy and
at least one of the authentication methods require a bind DN, the
proxyDN and proxyPassword attribute values must be set. In addition,
if enableShadowUpdate is set to true, the adminDN and adminPassword
values must be set. If a self credential level is specified, the
authenticationMethod must be sasl/GSSAPI.


defaultSearchBase

Specify the default search base DN. There is no default. The
serviceSearchDescriptor attribute can be used to override the
defaultSearchBase for given services.


defaultSearchScope=one | sub

Specify the default search scope for the client's search operations.
This default can be overridden for a given service by specifying a
serviceSearchDescriptor. The default is one level search.


defaultServerList

A space separated list of server names or server addresses, either
IPv4 or IPv6. If you specify server names, be sure that the LDAP
client can resolve the name without the LDAP name service. You must
resolve the LDAP servers' names by using either files or dns. If the
LDAP server name cannot be resolved, your naming service will fail.

The port number is optional. If not specified, the default LDAP
server port number 389 is used, except when TLS is specified in the
authentication method. In this case, the default LDAP server port
number is 636.

The format to specify the port number for an IPv6 address is:

[ipv6_addr]:port

To specify the port number for an IPv4 address, use the following
format:

ipv4_addr:port

If the host name is specified, use the format:

host_name:port

If you use TLS, the LDAP server's hostname must match the hostname in
the TLS certificate. Typically, the hostname in the TLS certificate
is a fully qualified domain name. With TLS, the LDAP server host
addresses must resolve to the hostnames in the TLS certificate. You
must use files or dns to resolve the host address.


domainName

Specify the DNS domain name. This becomes the default domain for the
machine. The default is the current domain name. This attribute is
only used in client initialization.


enableShadowUpdate=true | false

Specify whether the client is allowed to update shadow information.
If set to true and the credential level is proxy, adminDN and
adminPassword must be specified.


followReferrals=true | false

Specify the referral setting. A setting of true implies that
referrals will be automatically followed and false would result in
referrals not being followed. The default is true.


objectclassMap

Specify a mapping from an objectclass defined by a service to an
objectclass in an alternative schema. This can be used to change the
default schema used for a given service. The syntax of objectclassMap
is defined in the profile IETF draft. This option can be specified
multiple times. The default value for all services is NULL. In the
example,

objectclassMap=passwd:posixAccount=unixAccount


the LDAP client would use the LDAP objectclass of unixAccount rather
than the posixAccount for the passwd service. This is a multivalued
attribute.


preferredServerList

Specify the space separated list of server names or server addresses,
either IPv4 or IPv6, to be contacted before servers specified by the
defaultServerList attribute. If you specify server names, be sure
that the LDAP client can resolve the name without the LDAP name
service. You must resolve the LDAP servers' names by using either
files or dns. If the LDAP server name cannot be resolved, your naming
service will fail.

The port number is optional. If not specified, the default LDAP
server port number 389 is used, except when TLS is specified in the
authentication method. In this case, the default LDAP server port
number is 636.

The format to specify the port number for an IPv6 address is:

[ipv6_addr]:port

To specify the port number for an IPv4 address, use the following
format:

ipv4_addr:port

If the host name is specified, use the format:

host_name:port

If you use TLS, the LDAP server's hostname must match the hostname in
the TLS certificate. Typically, the hostname in the TLS certificate
is a fully qualified domain name. With TLS, the LDAP server host
addresses must resolve to the hostnames in the TLS certificate. You
must use files or dns to resolve the host address.


profileName

Specify the profile name. For ldapclient init, this attribute is the
name of an existing profile which may be downloaded periodically
depending on the value of the profileTTL attribute. For ldapclient
genprofile, this is the name of the profile to be generated. The
default value is default.


profileTTL

Specify the TTL value in seconds for the client information. This is
only relevant if the machine was initialized with a client profile.
If you do not want ldap_cachemgr(1M) to attempt to refresh the LDAP
client configuration from the LDAP server, set profileTTL to 0
(zero). Valid values are either zero 0 (for no expiration) or a
positive integer in seconds. The default value is 12 hours.


proxyDN

Specify the Bind Distinguished Name for the proxy identity. This
option is required if the credential level is proxy, and at least one
of the authentication methods requires a bind DN. There is no default
value.


proxyPassword

Specify client proxy password. This option is required if the
credential level is proxy, and at least one of the authentication
methods requires a bind DN. There is no default.


searchTimeLimit

Specify maximum number of seconds allowed for an LDAP search
operation. The default is 30 seconds. The server may have its own
search time limit.


serviceAuthenticationMethod

Specify authentication methods to be used by a service in the form
servicename:authenticationmethod, for example:

pam_ldap:tls:simple

For multiple authentication methods, use a semicolon-separated list.
The default value is no service authentication methods, in which
case, each service would default to the authenticationMethod value.
The supported authentications are described above.

Three services support this feature: passwd-cmd, keyserv, and
pam_ldap. The passwd-cmd service is used to define the authentication
method to be used by passwd(1) to change the user's password and
other attributes. The keyserv service is used to identify the
authentication method to be used by the chkey(1) and newkey(1M)
utilities. The pam_ldap service defines the authentication method to
be used for authenticating users when pam_ldap(5) is configured. If
this attribute is not set for any of these services, the
authenticationMethod attribute is used to define the authentication
method. This is a multivalued attribute.


serviceCredentialLevel

Specify credential level to be used by a service. Multiple values can
be specified in a space-separated list. The default value for all
services is NULL. The supported credential levels are: anonymous or
proxy. At present, no service uses this attribute. This is a
multivalued attribute.


serviceSearchDescriptor

Override the default base DN for LDAP searches for a given service.
The format of the descriptors also allow overriding the default
search scope and search filter for each service. The syntax of
serviceSearchDescriptor is defined in the profile IETF draft. The
default value for all services is NULL. This is a multivalued
attribute. In the example,

serviceSearchDescriptor=passwd:ou=people,dc=a1,dc=acme,dc=com?one


the LDAP client would do a one level search in
ou=people,dc=a1,dc=acme,dc=com rather than
ou=people,defaultSearchBase for the passwd service.


OPTIONS


The following options are supported:

-a attrName=attrValue

Specify attrName and its value. See SYNOPSIS for a complete list of
possible attribute names and values.


-D bindDN

Specifies an entry that has read permission for the requested
database.


-j passwdFile

Specify a file containing the password for the bind DN or the
password for the SSL client's key database. To protect the password,
use this option in scripts and place the password in a secure file.
This option is mutually exclusive of the -w option.


-q

Quiet mode. No output is generated.


-v

Verbose output.


-w bindPassword

Password to be used for authenticating the bind DN. If this parameter
is missing, the command will prompt for a password. NULL passwords
are not supported in LDAP.

When you use -w bindPassword to specify the password to be used for
authentication, the password is visible to other users of the system
by means of the ps command, in script files, or in shell history.

If you supply "-" (hyphen) as a password, the command will prompt for
a password.


-y passwdFile

Specify a file containing the password for the proxy DN. To protect
the password, use this option in scripts and place the password in a
secure file. This option is mutually exclusive of the -a
proxyPassword option.


-z adminrPasswdFile

Specify a file containing the password for the adminDN. To protect
the password, use this option in scripts and place the password in a
secure file. This option is mutually exclusive of the -a
adminPassword option.


OPERANDS


The following operand is supported:

LDAP_server

An address or a name for the LDAP server from which the profile will
be loaded. The current naming service specified in the nsswitch.conf
file is used. Once the profile is loaded, the preferredServerList
and defaultServerList specified in the profile are used.


EXAMPLES


Example 1: Setting Up a Client By Using the Default Profile Stored on a


Specified LDAP Server


The following example shows how to set up a client using the default
profile stored on the specified LDAP server. This command will only be
successful if either the credential level in the profile is set to
anonymous or the authentication method is set to none.


example# ldapclient init 172.16.100.1


Example 2: Setting Up a Client By Using the simple Profile Stored on a


Specified LDAP Server


The following example shows how to set up a client using the simple
profile stored on the specified LDAP server. The domainname is set to
xyz.mycompany.com and the proxyPassword is secret.


example# ldapclient init -a profileName=simple \
-a domainName=xyz.mycompany.com \
-a proxyDN=cn=proxyagent,ou=profile,dc=xyz,dc=mycompany,dc=com \
-a proxyPassword=secret '['fe80::a00:20ff:fea3:388']':386


Example 3: Setting Up a Client Using Only One Server




The following example shows how to set up a client using only one server.
The authentication method is set to none, and the search base is
dc=mycompany,dc=com.


example# ldapclient manual -a authenticationMethod=none \
-a defaultSearchBase=dc=mycompany,dc=com \
-a defaultServerList=172.16.100.1


Example 4: Setting Up a Client Using Only One Server That Does Not Follow


Referrals


The following example shows how to set up a client using only one server.
The credential level is set to proxy. The authentication method of is
sasl/CRAM-MD5, with the option not to follow referrals. The domain name
is xyz.mycompany.com, and the LDAP server is running on port number 386
at IP address 172.16.100.1.


example# ldapclient manual \
-a credentialLevel=proxy \
-a authenticationMethod=sasl/CRAM-MD5 \
-a proxyPassword=secret \
-a proxyDN=cn=proxyagent,ou=profile,dc=xyz,dc=mycompany,dc=com \
-a defaultSearchBase=dc=xyz,dc=mycompany,dc=com \
-a domainName=xyz.mycompany.com \
-a followReferrals=false \
-a defaultServerList=172.16.100.1:386


Example 5: Using genprofile to Set Only the defaultSearchBase and the


Server Addresses


The following example shows how to use the genprofile command to set the
defaultSearchBase and the server addresses.


example# ldapclient genprofile -a profileName=myprofile \
-a defaultSearchBase=dc=eng,dc=sun,dc=com \
-a "defaultServerList=172.16.100.1 172.16.234.15:386" \
> myprofile.ldif


Example 6: Creating a Profile on IPv6 servers




The following example creates a profile on IPv6 servers


example# ldapclient genprofile -a profileName=eng \
-a credentialLevel=proxy \
-a authenticationMethod=sasl/DIGEST-MD5 \
-a defaultSearchBase=dc=eng,dc=acme,dc=com \
-a "serviceSearchDescriptor=passwd:ou=people,dc=a1,dc=acme,dc=com?one"\
-a preferredServerList= '['fe80::a00:20ff:fea3:388']' \
-a "defaultServerList='['fec0::111:a00:20ff:fea3:edcf']' \
'['fec0::111:a00:20ff:feb5:e41']'" > eng.ldif


Example 7: Creating a Profile That Overrides Every Default Value




The following example shows a profile that overrides every default value.


example# ldapclient genprofile -a profileName=eng \
-a credentialLevel=proxy -a authenticationMethod=sasl/DIGEST-MD5 \
-a bindTimeLimit=20 \
-a defaultSearchBase=dc=eng,dc=acme,dc=com \
-a "serviceSearchDescriptor=passwd:ou=people,dc=a1,dc=acme,dc=com?one"\
-a serviceAuthenticationMethod=pam_ldap:tls:simple \
-a defaultSearchScope=sub \
-a attributeMap=passwd:uid=employeeNumber \
-a objectclassMap=passwd:posixAccount=unixAccount \
-a followReferrals=false -a profileTTL=6000 \
-a preferredServerList=172.16.100.30 -a searchTimeLimit=30 \
-a "defaultServerList=172.16.200.1 172.16.100.1 192.168.5.6" > eng.ldif


EXIT STATUS


The following exit values are returned:

0
The command successfully executed.


1
An error occurred. An error message is output.


2
proxyDN and proxyPassword attributes are required, but they are not
provided.


FILES


/var/ldap/ldap_client_cred
/var/ldap/ldap_client_file

Contain the LDAP configuration of the client. These files are not to
be modified manually. Their content is not guaranteed to be human
readable. Use ldapclient to update them.


/etc/defaultdomain

System default domain name, matching the domain name of the data in
the LDAP servers. See defaultdomain(4).


/etc/nsswitch.conf

Configuration file for the name-service switch. See nsswitch.conf(4).


/etc/nsswitch.ldap

Sample configuration file for the name-service switch configured with
LDAP and files.


ATTRIBUTES


See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:


+--------------------+-----------------+
| ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
+--------------------+-----------------+
|Interface Stability | Evolving |
+--------------------+-----------------+

SEE ALSO


chkey(1), ldap(1), ldapadd(1), ldapdelete(1), ldaplist(1), ldapmodify(1),
ldapmodrdn(1), ldapsearch(1), idsconfig(1M), ldapaddent(1M),
ldap_cachemgr(1M), defaultdomain(4), nsswitch.conf(4), resolv.conf(4),
attributes(5)

CAUTION


Currently StartTLS is not supported by libldap.so.5, therefore the port
number provided refers to the port used during a TLS open, rather than
the port used as part of a StartTLS sequence. To avoid timeout delays,
mixed use of TLS and non-TLS authentication mechanisms is not
recommended.


For example:

-h foo:1000 -a authenticationMethod=tls:simple


...or:

defaultServerList= foo:1000
authenticationMethod= tls:simple


The preceding refers to a raw TLS open on host foo port 1000, not an
open, StartTLS sequence on an unsecured port 1000. If port 1000 is
unsecured the connection will not be made.


As a second example, the following will incur a significant timeout delay
while attempting the connection to foo:636 with an unsecured bind.

defaultServerList= foo:636 foo:389
authenticationMethod= simple


February 25, 2017 LDAPCLIENT(1M)