IPSECKEY(1M) Maintenance Commands IPSECKEY(1M)


NAME


ipseckey - manually manipulate an IPsec Security Association Database
(SADB)

SYNOPSIS


ipseckey [-nvp]


ipseckey [-nvp] -f filename


ipseckey -c filename


ipseckey [-nvp] [delete | delete-pair | get] SA_TYPE {EXTENSION value...}


ipseckey [-np] [monitor | passive_monitor | pmonitor]


ipseckey [-nvp] flush {SA_TYPE}


ipseckey [-nvp] dump {SA_TYPE}


ipseckey [-nvp] save SA_TYPE {filename}


ipseckey [-nvp] -s filename


DESCRIPTION


The ipseckey command is used to manually manipulate the security
association databases of the network security services, ipsecah(7P) and
ipsecesp(7P). You can use the ipseckey command to set up security
associations between communicating parties when automated key management
is not available.


While the ipseckey utility has only a limited number of general options,
it supports a rich command language. The user may specify requests to be
delivered by means of a programmatic interface specific for manual
keying. See pf_key(7P). When ipseckey is invoked with no arguments, it
will enter an interactive mode which prints a prompt to the standard
output and accepts commands from the standard input until the end-of-file
is reached. Some commands require an explicit security association ("SA")
type, while others permit the SA type to be unspecified and act on all SA
types.


ipseckey uses a PF_KEY socket and the message types SADB_ADD,
SADB_DELETE, SADB_GET, SADB_UPDATE, SADB_FLUSH, and SADB_X_PROMISC. Thus,
you must be a superuser to use this command.


ipseckey handles sensitive cryptographic keying information. Please read
the Security section for details on how to use this command securely.

OPTIONS


-c [filename]

Analogous to the -f option (see following), except that the input is
not executed but only checked for syntactical correctness. Errors are
reported to stderr. This option is provided to debug configurations
without making changes. See SECURITY and "Service Management
Facility" for more information.


-f [filename]

Read commands from an input file, filename. The lines of the input
file are identical to the command line language. The load command
provides similar functionality. The -s option or the save command can
generate files readable by the -f argument.


-n

Prevent attempts to print host and network names symbolically when
reporting actions. This is useful, for example, when all name servers
are down or are otherwise unreachable.


-p

Paranoid. Do not print any keying material, even if saving SAs.
Instead of an actual hexadecimal digit, print an X when this flag is
turned on.


-s [filename]

The opposite of the -f option. If '-' is given for a filename, then
the output goes to the standard output. A snapshot of all current SA
tables will be output in a form readable by the -f option. The output
will be a series of add commands, but with some names not used. This
occurs because a single name may often indicate multiple addresses.


-v

Verbose. Print the messages being sent into the PF_KEY socket, and
print raw seconds values for lifetimes.


COMMANDS


add

Add an SA. Because it involves the transfer of keying material, it
cannot be invoked from the shell, lest the keys be visible in ps(1)
output. It can be used either from the interactive ipseckey> prompt
or in a command file specified by the -f command. The add command
accepts all extension-value pairs described below.


update

Update SA lifetime, and in the cases of larval SAs (leftover from
aborted automated key management), keying material and other
extensions. Like add, this command cannot be invoked from the shell
because keying material would be seen by the ps(1) command. It can be
used either from the interactive ipseckey> prompt or in a command
file specified by the -f command. The update command accepts all
extension-value pairs, but normally is only used for SA lifetime
updates.


update-pair

As update, but apply the update to the SA and its paired SA, if there
is one.


delete

Delete a specific SA from a specific SADB. This command requires the
spi extension, and the dest extension for IPsec SAs. Other
extension-value pairs are superfluous for a delete message. If the SA
to be deleted is paired with another SA, the SA is deleted and the
paired SA is updated to indicate that it is now unpaired.


delete-pair

Delete a specific SA from a specific SADB. If the SA is paired with
another SA, delete that SA too. This command requires the spi
extension and the dest extension for the IPsec SA, or its pair.


get

Lookup and display a security association from a specific SADB. Like
delete, this command only requires spi and dest for IPsec.


flush

Remove all SA for a given SA_TYPE, or all SA for all types.


monitor

Continuously report on any PF_KEY messages. This uses the
SADB_X_PROMISC message to enable messages that a normal PF_KEY socket
would not receive to be received. See pf_key(7P).


passive_monitor

Like monitor, except that it does not use the SADB_X_PROMISC message.


pmonitor

Synonym for passive_monitor.


dump

Will display all SAs for a given SA type, or will display all SAs.
Because of the large amount of data generated by this command, there
is no guarantee that all SA information will be successfully
delivered, or that this command will even complete.


save

Is the command analog of the -s option. It is included as a command
to provide a way to snapshot a particular SA type, for example, esp
or ah.


help

Prints a brief summary of commands.


SA_TYPE
all

Specifies all known SA types. This type is only used for the flush
and dump commands. This is equivalent to having no SA type for these
commands.


ah

Specifies the IPsec Authentication Header ("AH") SA.


esp

Specifies the IPsec Encapsulating Security Payload ("ESP") SA.


EXTENSION VALUE TYPES


Commands like add, delete, get, and update require that certain
extensions and associated values be specified. The extensions will be
listed here, followed by the commands that use them, and the commands
that require them. Requirements are currently documented based upon the
IPsec definitions of an SA. Required extensions may change in the future.
<number> can be in either hex (0xnnn), decimal (nnn) or octal
(0nnn).<string> is a text string. <hexstr> is a long hexadecimal number
with a bit-length. Extensions are usually paired with values; however,
some extensions require two values after them.

spi <number>

Specifies the security parameters index of the SA. This extension is
required for the add, delete, get and update commands.


pair-spi <number>

When pair-spi is used with the add or update commands, the SA being
added or updated will be paired with the SA defined by pair-spi. A
pair of SAs can be updated or deleted with a single command.

The two SAs that make up the pair need to be in opposite directions
from the same pair of IP addresses. The command will fail if either
of the SAs specified are already paired with another SA.

If the pair-spi token is used in a command and the SA defined by
pair-spi does not exist, the command will fail. If the command was
add and the pairing failed, the SA to be added will instead be
removed.


inbound | outbound

These optional flags specify the direction of the SA. When the
inbound or outbound flag is specified with the add command, the
kernel will insert the new SA into the specified hash table for
faster lookups. If the flag is omitted, the kernel will decide into
which hash table to insert the new SA based on its knowledge the IP
addresses specified with the src and dst extensions.

When these flags are used with the update, delete, update-pair or get
commands, the flags provide a hint as to the hash table in which the
kernel should find the SA.


replay <number>

Specifies the replay window size. If not specified, the replay window
size is assumed to be zero. It is not recommended that manually added
SAs have a replay window. This extension is used by the add and
update commands.


replay_value <number>

Specifies the replay value of the SA. This extension is used by the
add and update commands.


state <string>|<number>

Specifies the SA state, either by numeric value or by the strings
"larval", "mature", "dying" or "dead". If not specified, the value
defaults to mature. This extension is used by the add and update
commands.


auth_alg <string>|<number>
authalg <string>|<number>

Specifies the authentication algorithm for an SA, either by numeric
value, or by strings indicating an algorithm name. Current
authentication algorithms include:

HMAC-MD5

md5, hmac-md5


HMAC-SH-1

sha, sha-1, hmac-sha1, hmac-sha


HMAC-SHA-256

sha256, sha-256, hmac-sha256, hmac-sha-256


HMAC-SHA-384

sha384, sha-384, hmac-sha384, hmac-sha-384


HMAC-SHA-512

sha512, sha-512, hmac-sha512, hmac-sha-512

Often, algorithm names will have several synonyms. This extension is
required by the add command for certain SA types. It is also used by
the update command.

Use the ipsecalgs(1M) command to obtain the complete list of
authentication algorithms.


encr_alg <string>|<number>
encralg <string>|<number>

Specifies the encryption algorithm for an SA, either by numeric
value, or by strings indicating an algorithm name. Current encryption
algorithms include DES ("des"), Triple-DES ("3des"), Blowfish
("blowfish"), and AES ("aes"). This extension is required by the add
command for certain SA types. It is also used by the update command.

Use the ipsecalgs(1M) command to obtain the complete list of
encryption algorithms.


The next six extensions are lifetime extensions. There are two varieties,
"hard" and "soft". If a hard lifetime expires, the SA will be deleted
automatically by the system. If a soft lifetime expires, an SADB_EXPIRE
message will be transmitted by the system, and its state will be
downgraded to dying from mature. See pf_key(7P). The monitor command to
key allows you to view SADB_EXPIRE messages.

idle_addtime <number>
idle_usetime <number>

Specifies the number of seconds that this SA can exist if the SA is
not used before the SA is revalidated. If this extension is not
present, the default value is half of the hard_addtime (see below).
This extension is used by the add and update commands.


soft_bytes <number>
hard_bytes <number>

Specifies the number of bytes that this SA can protect. If this
extension is not present, the default value is zero, which means that
the SA will not expire based on the number of bytes protected. This
extension is used by the add and update commands.


soft_addtime <number>
hard_addtime <number>

Specifies the number of seconds that this SA can exist after being
added or updated from a larval SA. An update of a mature SA does not
reset the initial time that it was added. If this extension is not
present, the default value is zero, which means the SA will not
expire based on how long it has been since it was added. This
extension is used by the add and update commands.


soft_usetime <number>
hard_usetime <number>

Specifies the number of seconds this SA can exist after first being
used. If this extension is not present, the default value is zero,
which means the SA will not expire based on how long it has been
since it was added. This extension is used by the add and update
commands.


saddr address | name
srcaddr address | name
saddr6 IPv6 address
srcaddr6 IPv6 address
src address | name
src6 IPv6 address

srcaddr address and src address are synonyms that indicate the source
address of the SA. If unspecified, the source address will either
remain unset, or it will be set to a wildcard address if a
destination address was supplied. To not specify the source address
is valid for IPsec SAs. Future SA types may alter this assumption.
This extension is used by the add, update, get and delete commands.


daddr <address>|<name>
dstaddr <address>|<name>
daddr6 <IPv6 address>|<name>
dstaddr6 <IPv6 address>|<name>
dst <addr>|<name>
dst6 <IPv6 address>|<name>

dstaddr <addr> and dst <addr> are synonyms that indicate the
destination address of the SA. If unspecified, the destination
address will remain unset. Because IPsec SAs require a specified
destination address and spi for identification, this extension, with
a specific value, is required for the add, update, get and delete
commands.

If a name is given, ipseckey will attempt to invoke the command on
multiple SAs with all of the destination addresses that the name can
identify. This is similar to how ipsecconf handles addresses.

If dst6 or dstaddr6 is specified, only the IPv6 addresses identified
by a name are used.


sport <portnum>

sport specifies the source port number for an SA. It should be used
in combination with an upper-layer protocol (see below), but it does
not have to be.


dport <portnum>

sport specifies the destination port number for an SA. It should be
used in combination with an upper-layer protocol (see below), but it
does not have to be.


encap <protocol>

Identifies the protocol used to encapsulate NAT-traversal IPsec
packets. Other NAT-traversal parameters (nat_*) are below. The only
acceptable value for <protocol> currently is udp.


proto <protocol number>
ulp <protocol number>

proto, and its synonym ulp, specify the IP protocol number of the SA.


nat_loc <address>|<name>

If the local address in the SA (source or destination) is behind a
NAT, this extension indicates the NAT node's globally-routable
address. This address can match the SA's local address if there is a
nat_lport (see below) specified.


nat_rem <address>|<name>

If the remote address in the SA (source or destination) is behind a
NAT, this extension indicates that node's internal (that is, behind-
the-NAT) address. This address can match the SA's local address if
there is a nat_rport (see below) specified.


nat_lport <portnum>

Identifies the local UDP port on which encapsulation of ESP occurs.


nat_rport <portnum>

Identifies the remote UDP port on which encapsulation of ESP occurs.


isrc <address> | <name>[/<prefix>]
innersrc <address> | <name>[/<prefix>]
isrc6 <address> | <name>[/<prefix>]
innersrc6 <address> | <name>[/<prefix>]
proxyaddr <address> | <name>[/<prefix>]
proxy <address> | <name>[/<prefix>]

isrc <address>[/<prefix>] and innersrc <address>[/<prefix>] are
synonyms. They indicate the inner source address for a tunnel-mode
SA.

An inner-source can be a prefix instead of an address. As with other
address extensions, there are IPv6-specific forms. In such cases, use
only IPv6-specific addresses or prefixes.

Previous versions referred to this value as the proxy address. The
usage, while deprecated, remains.


idst <address> | <name>[/<prefix>]
innerdst <address> | <name>[/<prefix>]
idst6 <address> | <name>[/<prefix>]
innerdst6 <address> | <name>[/<prefix>]

idst <address>[/<prefix>] and innerdst <address>[/<prefix>] are
synonyms. They indicate the inner destination address for a tunnel-
mode SA.

An inner-destination can be a prefix instead of an address. As with
other address extensions, there are IPv6-specific forms. In such
cases, use only IPv6-specific addresses or prefixes.


innersport <portnum>
isport <portnum>

innersport specifies the source port number of the inner header for a
tunnel-mode SA. It should be used in combination with an upper-layer
protocol (see below), but it does not have to be.


innerdport <portnum>
idport <portnum>

innerdport specifies the destination port number of the inner header
for a tunnel-mode SA. It should be used in combination with an upper-
layer protocol (see below), but it does not have to be.


iproto <protocol number>iulp <protocol number>

iproto, and its synonym iulp, specify the IP protocol number of the
inner header of a tunnel-mode SA.


authkey <hexstring>

Specifies the authentication key for this SA. The key is expressed as
a string of hexadecimal digits, with an optional / at the end, for
example, 123/12. Bits are counted from the most-significant bits
down. For example, to express three '1' bits, the proper syntax is
the string "e/3". For multi-key algorithms, the string is the
concatenation of the multiple keys. This extension is used by the add
and update commands.


encrkey <hexstring>

Specifies the encryption key for this SA. The syntax of the key is
the same as authkey. A concrete example of a multi-key encryption
algorithm is 3des, which would express itself as a 192-bit key, which
is three 64-bit parity-included DES keys. This extension is used by
the add and update commands.


Certificate identities are very useful in the context of automated key
management, as they tie the SA to the public key certificates used in
most automated key management protocols. They are less useful for
manually added SAs. Unlike other extensions, srcidtype takes two values,
a type, and an actual value. The type can be one of the following:

prefix

An address prefix.


fqdn

A fully-qualified domain name.


domain

Domain name, synonym for fqdn.


user_fqdn

User identity of the form user@fqdn.


mailbox

Synonym for user_fqdn.


The value is an arbitrary text string that should identify the
certificate.

srcidtype <type, value>

Specifies a source certificate identity for this SA. This extension
is used by the add and update commands.


dstidtype <type, value>

Specifies a destination certificate identity for this SA. This
extension is used by the add and update commands


Tunnel Mode versus Transport Mode SAs


An IPsec SA is a Tunnel Mode SA if the "proto" value is either 4 (ipip)
or 41 (ipv6) and there is an inner-address or inner-port value specified.
Otherwise, the SA is a Transport Mode SA.

SECURITY


Keying material is very sensitive and should be generated as randomly as
possible. Some algorithms have known weak keys. IPsec algorithms have
built-in weak key checks, so that if a weak key is in a newly added SA,
the add command will fail with an invalid value.


The ipseckey command allows a privileged user to enter cryptographic
keying information. If an adversary gains access to such information, the
security of IPsec traffic is compromised. The following issues should be
taken into account when using the ipseckey command.

1. Is the TTY going over a network (interactive mode)?

o If it is, then the security of the keying material is the
security of the network path for this TTY's traffic. Using
ipseckey over a clear-text telnet or rlogin session is
risky.

o Even local windows might be vulnerable to attacks where a
concealed program that reads window events is present.

2. Is the file accessed over the network or readable to the world
(-f option)?

o A network-mounted file can be sniffed by an adversary as
it is being read.

o A world-readable file with keying material in it is also
risky.

3. The ipseckey command is designed to be managed by the manual-
key smf(5) service. Because the smf(5) log files are world-
readable, the ipseckey does not record any syntax errors in
the log files, as these errors might include secret
information.

If a syntax error is found when the manual-key smf(5) service
is enabled, the service enters maintenance mode. The log file
will indicate that there was a syntax error, but will not
specify what the error was.

The administrator should use ipeckey -c filename from the
command line to discover the cause of the errors. See OPTIONS.


If your source address is a host that can be looked up over the network
and your naming system itself is compromised, then any names used will
not be trustworthy.


Security weaknesses often lie in misapplication of tools, not in the
tools themselves. Administrators are urged to be cautious when using
ipseckey. The safest mode of operation is probably on a console or other
hard-connected TTY.


For further thoughts on this subject, see the afterward by Matt Blaze in
Bruce Schneier's Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source
Code in C.

Service Management Facility


IPsec manual keys are managed by the service management facility, smf(5).
The services listed below manage the components of IPsec. These services
are delivered as follows:

svc:/network/ipsec/policy:default (enabled)
svc:/network/ipsec/ipsecalgs:default (enabled)
svc:/network/ipsec/manual-key:default (disabled)
svc:/network/ipsec/ike:default (disabled)


The manual-key service is delivered disabled. The system administrator
must create manual IPsec Security Associations (SAs), as described in
this man page, before enabling that service.


The policy service is delivered enabled, but without a configuration
file, so that, as a starting condition, packets are not protected by
IPsec. After you create the configuration file /etc/inet/ipsecinit.conf
and refresh the service (svcadm refresh, see below), the policy contained
in the configuration file is applied. If there is an error in this file,
the service enters maintenance mode. See ipsecconf(1M).


Services that are delivered disabled are delivered that way because the
system administrator must create configuration files for those services
before enabling them. See ike.config(4) for the ike service.


See ipsecalgs(1M) for the ipsecalgs service.


The correct administrative procedure is to create the configuration file
for each service, then enable each service using svcadm(1M).


If the configuration needs to be changed, edit the configuration file
then refresh the service, as follows:

example# svcadm refresh manual-key


Warning: To prevent ipseckey complaining about duplicate Associations,
the ipseckey command flushes the Security Association Data Base (SADB)
when the ipseckey command is run from smf(5), before adding any new
Security Associations defined in the configuration file. This differs
from the command line behavior where the SADB is not flushed before
adding new Security Associations.


The smf(5) framework will record any errors in the service-specific log
file. Use any of the following commands to examine the logfile property:

example# svcs -l manual-key
example# svcprop manual-key
example# svccfg -s manual-key listprop


The following property is defined for the manual-key service:

config/config_file


This property can be modified using svccfg(1M) by users who have been
assigned the following authorization:

solaris.smf.value.ipsec


See auths(1), user_attr(4), rbac(5).


The service needs to be refreshed using svcadm(1M) before the new
property is effective. General non-modifiable properties can be viewed
with the svcprop(1) command.

# svccfg -s ipsec/manual-key setprop config/config_file = \
/new/config_file
# svcadm refresh manual-key


Administrative actions on this service, such as enabling, disabling,
refreshing, and requesting restart can be performed using svcadm(1M). A
user who has been assigned the authorization shown below can perform
these actions:

solaris.smf.manage.ipsec


The service's status can be queried using the svcs(1) command.


The ipseckey command is designed to be run under smf(5) management.
While the ipsecconf command can be run from the command line, this is
discouraged. If the ipseckey command is to be run from the command line,
the manual-key smf(5) service should be disabled first. See svcadm(1M).

EXAMPLES


Example 1: Emptying Out All SAs




To empty out all SA:


example# ipseckey flush


Example 2: Flushing Out IPsec AH SAs Only




To flush out only IPsec AH SAs:


example# ipseckey flush ah


Example 3: Saving All SAs To Standard Output




To save all SAs to the standard output:


example# ipseckey save all


Example 4: Saving ESP SAs To The File /tmp/snapshot




To save ESP SAs to the file /tmp/snapshot:


example# ipseckey save esp /tmp/snapshot


Example 5: Deleting an IPsec SA




To delete an IPsec SA, only the SPI and the destination address are
needed:


example# ipseckey delete esp spi 0x2112 dst 224.0.0.1


An alternative would be to delete the SA and the SAs pair if it has one:


example# ipseckey delete-pair esp spi 0x2112 dst 224.0.0.1


Example 6: Getting Information on an IPsec SA




Likewise, getting information on a SA only requires the destination
address and SPI:


example# ipseckey get ah spi 0x5150 dst mypeer


Example 7: Adding or Updating IPsec SAs




Adding or updating SAs requires entering interactive mode:


example# ipseckey
ipseckey> add ah spi 0x90125 src me.domain.com dst you.domain.com \
authalg md5 authkey 1234567890abcdef1234567890abcdef
ipseckey> update ah spi 0x90125 dst you.domain.com hard_bytes \
16000000
ipseckey> exit


Adding two SAs that are linked together as a pair:


example# ipseckey
ipseckey> add esp spi 0x2345 src me.domain.com dst you.domain.com \
authalg md5 authkey bde359723576fdea08e56cbe876e24ad \
encralg des encrkey be02938e7def2839
ipseckey> add esp spi 0x5432 src me.domain.com dst you.domain.com \
authalg md5 authkey bde359723576fdea08e56cbe876e24ad \
encralg des encrkey be02938e7def2839 pair-spi 0x2345
ipseckey> exit


Example 8: Adding an SA in the Opposite Direction




In the case of IPsec, SAs are unidirectional. To communicate securely, a
second SA needs to be added in the opposite direction. The peer machine
also needs to add both SAs.


example# ipseckey
ipseckey> add ah spi 0x2112 src you.domain.com dst me.domain.com \
authalg md5 authkey bde359723576fdea08e56cbe876e24ad \
hard_bytes 16000000
ipseckey> exit


Example 9: Monitoring PF_KEY Messages




Monitoring for PF_KEY messages is straightforward:


example# ipseckey monitor


Example 10: Using Commands in a File




Commands can be placed in a file that can be parsed with the -f option.
This file may contain comment lines that begin with the "#" symbol. For
example:


# This is a sample file for flushing out the ESP table and
# adding a pair of SAs.

flush esp

### Watch out! I have keying material in this file. See the
### SECURITY section in this manual page for why this can be
### dangerous .

add esp spi 0x2112 src me.domain.com dst you.domain.com \
authalg md5 authkey bde359723576fdea08e56cbe876e24ad \
encralg des encrkey be02938e7def2839 hard_usetime 28800
add esp spi 0x5150 src you.domain.com dst me.domain.com \
authalg md5 authkey 930987dbe09743ade09d92b4097d9e93 \
encralg des encrkey 8bd4a52e10127deb hard_usetime 28800

## End of file - This is a gratuitous comment


Example 11: Adding SAs for IPv6 Addresses




The following commands from the interactive-mode create an SA to protect
IPv6 traffic between the site-local addresses


example # ipseckey
ipseckey> add esp spi 0x6789 src6 fec0:bbbb::4483 dst6 fec0:bbbb::7843\
authalg md5 authkey bde359723576fdea08e56cbe876e24ad \
encralg des encrkey be02938e7def2839 hard_usetime 28800
ipseckey>exit


Example 12: Linking Two SAs as a Pair




The following command links two SAs together, as a pair:


example# ipseckey update esp spi 0x123456 dst 192.168.99.2 \
pair-spi 0x654321


FILES


/etc/inet/secret/ipseckeys

Default configuration file used at boot time. See "Service Management
Facility" and SECURITY for more information.


ATTRIBUTES


See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:


+--------------------+-----------------+
| ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
|Interface Stability | Committed |
+--------------------+-----------------+

SEE ALSO


ps(1), svcprop(1), svcs(1), ipsecconf(1M), ipsecalgs(1M), route(1M),
svcadm(1M), svccfg(1M), ike.config(4), attributes(5), smf(5), ipsec(7P),
ipsecah(7P), ipsecesp(7P), pf_key(7P)


Schneier, B., Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source
Code in C. Second ed. New York, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.

DIAGNOSTICS


The ipseckey command parses the configuration file and reports any
errors. In the case of multiple errors, ipseckey reports as many of these
as possible.


The ipseckey command does not attempt to use a COMMAND that has a syntax
error. A COMMAND might be syntactically correct but can nevertheless
generate an error because the kernel rejected the request made to
pf_key(7P). This might occur because a key had an invalid length or
because an unsupported algorithm was specified.


If there are any errors in the configuration file, ipseckey reports the
number of valid COMMANDS and the total number of COMMANDS parsed.

Parse error on line N.

If an interactive use of ipseckey would print usage information, this
would print instead. Usually proceeded by another diagnostic. Because
COMMANDS can cover more than a single line in the configuration file
by using the backslash character to delimit lines, its not always
possible to pinpoint in the configuration file the exact line that
caused the error.


Unexpected end of command line.

An additional argument was expected on the command line.


Unknown

A value for a specific extension was unknown.


Address type N not supported.

A name-to-address lookup returned an unsupported address family.


N is not a bit specifier
bit length N is too big for
string is not a hex string

Keying material was not entered appropriately.


Can only specify single

A duplicate extension was entered.


Don't use extension for <string> for <command>.

An extension not used by a command was used.


One of the entered values is incorrect: Diagnostic code NN: <msg>

This is a general invalid parameter error. The diagnostic code and
message provides more detail about what precise value was incorrect
and why.


NOTES


In spite of its IPsec-specific name, ipseckey is analogous to route(1M),
in that it is a command-line interface to a socket-based administration
engine, in this case, PF_KEY. PF_KEY was originally developed at the
United States Naval Research Laboratory.


To have machines communicate securely with manual keying, SAs need to be
added by all communicating parties. If two nodes wish to communicate
securely, both nodes need the appropriate SAs added.


In the future ipseckey may be invoked under additional names as other
security protocols become available to PF_KEY.


This command requires sys_ip_config privilege to operate and thus can run
in the global zone and in exclusive-IP zones. The global zone can set up
security associations with ipseckey to protect traffic for shared-IP
zones on the system.


September 25, 2008 IPSECKEY(1M)