IKECERT(1M) Maintenance Commands IKECERT(1M)


NAME


ikecert - manipulates the machine's on-filesystem public-key certificate
databases

SYNOPSIS


ikecert certlocal
[-a | -e | -h | -k | -l | -r | -U | -C | -L]
[[-p] -T PKCS#11 token identifier]
[option_specific_arguments]...


ikecert certdb [-a | -e | -h | -l | -r | -U | -C | -L]
[[-p] -T PKCS#11 token identifier]
[option_specific_arguments]...


ikecert certrldb [-a | -e | -h | -l | -r]
[option_specific_arguments]...


ikecert tokens


DESCRIPTION


The ikecert command manipulates the machine's on-filesystem public-key
certificate databases. See the "Files" section, below.


ikecert has three subcommands, one for each of the three major
repositories, plus one for listing available hardware tokens:

o certlocal deals with the private-key repository,

o certdb deals with the public-key repository, and:

o certrldb deals with the certificate revocation list (CRL)
repository.

o tokens shows the available PKCS#11 tokens for a given PKCS#11
library.


The only supported PKCS#11 library and hardware is the Sun Cryptographic
Accelerator 4000.

OPTIONS


Except for tokens, each subcommand requires one option, possibly followed
by one or more option-specific arguments.


The tokens subcommand lists all available tokens in the PKCS#11 library
specified in /etc/inet/ike/config.


The following options are supported:

-a


certlocal

When specified with the certlocal subcommand, this option
installs (adds) a private key into the Internet Key Exchange
(IKE) local ID database. The key data is read from standard
input, and is in either Solaris-only format or unencrypted PKCS#8
DER format. Key format is automatically detected. PKCS#8 key
files in PEM format and files in password protected, encrypted
format are not recognized, but can be converted appropriately
using tools available in OpenSSL.

This option cannot be used with PKCS#11 hardware objects when the
corresponding public certificate is not already present in the
IKE database. When importing both a public certificate and a
private key, the public portion must be imported first using the
certdb subcommand.


certdb

When specified with the certdb subcommand, this option reads a
certificate from standard input and adds it to the IKE
certificate database. The certificate must be a X.509 certificate
in PEM Base64 or ASN.1 BER encoding. The certificate adopts the
name of its identity.

This option can import a certificate into a PKCS#11 hardware key
store one of two ways: Either a matching public key object and an
existing private key object were created using the certlocal -kc
option, or if a PKCS#11 token is explicitly specified using the
-T option.


certrldb

When specified with the certrldb subcommand, this option installs
(adds) a CRL into the IKE database. The CRL reads from standard
input.


-e [-f pkcs8] slot


certlocal

When specified with the certlocal subcommand, this option
extracts a private key from the IKE local ID database. The key
data are written to standard output. The slot specifies which
private key to extract. Private keys are only extracted in
binary/ber format.

Use this option with extreme caution. See the "Security" section,
below.

This option will not work with PKCS#11 hardware objects.

When used in conjunction with "-f pkcs8", the private key is
extracted in unencrypted PKCS#8 format.


-e [-f output-format] certspec


certdb

When specified with the certdb subcommand, this option extracts a
certificate from the IKE certificate database which matches the
certspec and writes it to standard output. The output-format
option specifies the encoding format. Valid options are PEM and
BER. This extracts the first matching identity. The default
output format is PEM.


certrldb

When specified with the certrldb subcommand, this option extracts
a CRL from the IKE database. The key data are written to standard
output. The certspec specifies which CRL that is extracted. The
first one that matches in the database is extracted. See NOTES,
below, for details on certspec patterns.


-kc -m keysize -t keytype -D dname -A altname[ ... ]
[-S validity start_time][-F validity end_time]
[-T PKCS#11 token identifier]


certlocal

When specified with the certlocal subcommand, this option
generates a IKE public/private key pair and adds it into the
local ID database. It also generates a certificate request and
sends that to standard output. For details on the above options
see for details on the dname argument and see ALTERNATIVE NAMES
for details on the altname argument(s) to this command.

If -T is specified, the hardware token will generate the pair of
keys.

If -p is specified with -T, the PKCS#11 token pin is stored in
the clear on-disk, with root-protected file permissions. If not
specified, one must unlock the token with ikeadm(1M) once
in.iked(1M) is running.


-ks -m keysize -t keytype -D dname -A altname[ ... ]
[-S validity start_time][-F validity end_time]
[-f output-format][[-p] -T PKCS#11 token identifier]


certlocal

When specified with the certlocal subcommand, generates a
public/private key pair and adds it into the local ID database.
This option also generates a self-signed certificate and installs
it into the certificate database. See NOTES, below, for details
on the dname and altname arguments to this command.

If -T is specified, the hardware token will generate the pair of
keys, and the self-signed certificate will also be stored in the
hardware.


-l [-v] [slot]


certlocal

When specified with the certlocal subcommand, this option lists
private keys in the local ID database. The -v option switches
output to a verbose mode where the entire certificate is printed.

Use the -voption with extreme caution. See the "Security"
section, below. The -v option will not work with PKCS#11 hardware
objects.


-l [-v] [certspec]


certdb

When specified with the certdb subcommand, this option lists
certificates in the IKE certificate database matching the
certspec, if any pattern is given. The list displays the
identity string of the certificates, as well as, the private key
if in the key database. The -v switches the output to a verbose
mode where the entire certificate is printed.

If the matching ceritifcate is on a hardware token, the token ID
is also listed.


certrldb

When specified with the certrldb subcommand, this option lists
the CRLs in the IKE database along with any certificates that
reside in the database and match the Issuer Name. certspec can be
used to specify to list a specific CRL. The -v option switches
the output to a verbose mode where the entire certificate is
printed. See NOTES, below, for details oncertspec patterns.


-r slot


certlocal

When specified with the certlocal subcommand, deletes the local
ID in the specified slot. If there is a corresponding public key,
it is not be deleted. If this slot is deemed as "corrupted" or
otherwise unrecognizable, it is deleted as well.

If this is invoked on a PKCS#11 hardware object, it will also
delete the PKCS#11 public key and private key objects. If the
public key object was already deleted by certdb -r, that is not a
problem.


-r certspec


certdb

Removes certificates from the IKE certificate database.
Certificates matching the specified certificate pattern are
deleted. Any private keys in the certlocal database corresponding
to these certificates are not deleted. This removes the first
matching identity.

If the pattern specifies a slot and the slot is deemed as
"corrupted" or otherwise unrecognizable, it is deleted as well.

If this is invoked on a PKCS#11 hardware object, it will also
delete the certificate and the PKCS#11 public key object. If the
public key object was already deleted by certlocal -r, that is
not a problem.


certrldb

When specified with the certrldb subcommand, this option deletes
the CRL with the given certspec.


-U slot


certlocal

When specified with the certlocal subcommand and the -T flag,
this option unlinks a PKCS#11 private key object from the IKE
database. There will be no attempt to access the hardware
keystore or to validate or remove the on-token private key
object. The object is simply disassociated from the IKE database.


certdb

When specified with the certdb subcommand and the -T flag, this
option unlinks a PKCS#11 certificate object from the IKE
database. There will be no attempt to access the hardware
keystore or to validate or remove the on-token certificate or
public key objects. The objects are simply disassociated from the
IKE database.


-C certspec


certlocal

When specified with the certlocal subcommand, this option copies
both the private key and its corresponding certificate and the
public key from the on-disk keystore to the hardware keystore
specified by its PKCS#11 token. This subcommand attempts to
create each of these components, even if one part fails. In all
cases, the original on-disk private key and public certificate
are still retained and must be deleted separately. Some hardware
keystores, such as FIPS-140 compliant devices, may not support
migration of private key objects in this manner.


certdb

When specified with the certdb subcommand, this option copies the
certificate matching the given certspec and corresponding public
key from the on-disk keystore to the hardware keystore specified
by its PKCS#11 token. The original public certificate is still
retained and must be deleted separately, if desired.

If -p is specified, the PKCS#11 token pin is stored in the clear
on-disk, with root-protected file permissions. If not specified,
one must unlock the token with ikeadm(1M) once in.iked(1M) is
running.


-L pattern


certlocal

When specified with the certlocal subcommand, this option links
an existing on-token private key object to the IKE database. The
object itself remains on the token. This option simply lets the
IKE infrastructure know that the object exists, as if it had been
originally created on-token with the Solaris IKE utilities.


certdb

When specified with the certdb subcommand, this option links an
existing on-token certificate object to the IKE database. The
object itself remains on the token. This option simply lets the
IKE infrastructure know that the object exists, as if it had been
originally created on-token with the Solaris IKE utilities.

If -p is specified, the PKCS#11 token pin is stored in the clear
on-disk, with root-protected file permissions. If not specified,
one must unlock the token with ikeadm(1M) once in.iked(1M) is
running.


PARAMETERS


The following parameters are supported:

certspec

Specifies the pattern matching of certificate specifications. Valid
certspecs are the Subject Name, Issuer Name, and Subject Alternative
Names.

These can be specified as certificates that match the given certspec
values and that do not match other certspec values. To signify a
certspec value that is not supposed to be present in a certificate,
place an ! in front of the tag.

Valid certspecs are:

<Subject Names>
SUBJECT=<Subject Names>
ISSUER=<Issuer Names>
SLOT=<Slot Number in the certificate database>

Example:"ISSUER=C=US, O=SUN" IP=1.2.3.4 !DNS=example.com
Example:"C=US, O=CALIFORNIA" IP=5.4.2.1 DNS=example.com


Valid arguments to the alternative names are as follows:

IP=<IPv4 address>
DNS=<Domain Name Server address>
EMAIL=<email (RFC 822) address>
URI=<Uniform Resource Indicator value>
DN=<LDAP Directory Name value>
RID=<Registered Identifier value>


Valid Slot numbers can be specified without the keyword tag.
Alternative name can also be issued with keyword tags.


-A

Subject Alternative Names the certificate. The argument that follows
the -A option should be in the form of tag=value. Valid tags are IP,
DNS, EMAIL, URI, DN, and RID (See example below).


-D

X.509 distinguished name for the certificate subject. It typically
has the form of: C=country, O=organization, OU=organizational unit,
CN=common name. Valid tags are: C, O, OU, and CN.


-f

Encoding output format. pem for PEM Base64 or ber for ASN.1 BER. If
-f is not specified, pem is assumed.


-F validity end_time

Finish certificate validity time. If the -F flag is not specified,
the validity end time is calculated at four years from the validity
start time. See NOTES for an explanation for the validity date and
time syntax.


-m

Key size. It can be 512, 1024, 2048, 3072, or 4096. Use the following
command to determine the key sizes supported by the Solaris
Cryptographic Framework:

% cryptoadm list -vm


The mechanisms displayed by the preceding command are described in
pkcs11_softtoken(5). If your system has hardware acceleration, the
mechanisms supported by the hardware will be listed in a separate
section for each provider. Mechanisms can be any of:

CKM_RSA_PKCS_KEY_PAIR_GEN
CKM_DSA_KEY_PAIR_GEN
CKM_DH_PKCS_KEY_PAIR_GEN


Note -

Some hardware does not support all key sizes. For example, the Sun
Cryptographic Accelerator 4000's keystore (when using the -T
option, below), supports only up to 2048-bit keys for RSA and
1024-bit keys for DSA.


-S validity start_time

Start certificate validity time. If the -S flag is not specified, the
current date and time is used for the validity start time. See NOTES,
below, for an explanation for the validity date and time syntax.


-t

Key type. It can be rsa-sha1, rsa-md5, or dsa-sha1.


-T

PKCS#11 token identifier for hardware key storage. This specifies a
hardware device instance in conformance to the PKCS#11 standard. A
PKCS#11 library must be specified in /etc/inet/ike/config. (See
ike.config(4).)

A token identifier is a 32-character space-filled string. If the
token given is less than 32 characters long, it will be automatically
padded with spaces.

If there is more than one PKCS#11 library on a system, keep in mind
that only one can be specified at a time in /etc/inet/ike/config.
There can be multiple tokens (each with individual key storage) for a
single PKCS#11 library instance.


SECURITY


This command can save private keys of a public-private key pair into a
file. Any exposure of a private key may lead to compromise if the key is
somehow obtained by an adversary.


The PKCS#11 hardware object functionality can address some of the
shortcomings of on-disk private keys. Because IKE is a system service,
user intervention at boot is not desirable. The token's PIN, however, is
still needed. The PIN for the PKCS#11 token, therefore, is stored where
normally the on-disk cryptographic keys would reside. This design
decision is deemed acceptable because, with a hardware key store,
possession of the key is still unavailable, only use of the key is an
issue if the host is compromised. Beyond the PIN, the security of
ikecert then reduces to the security of the PKCS#11 implementation. The
PKCS#11 implementation should be scrutinized also.


Refer to the afterword by Matt Blaze in Bruce Schneier's Applied
Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C for additional
information.

EXAMPLES


Example 1: Generating a Self-Signed Certificate




The following is an example of a self-signed certificate:


example# ikecert certlocal -ks -m 512 -t rsa-md5 -D "C=US, O=SUN" -A
IP=1.2.3.4
Generating, please wait...
Certificate generated.
Certificate added to database.
-----BEGIN X509 CERTIFICATE-----
MIIBRDCB76ADAgECAgEBMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBAUAMBsxCzAJBgNVBAYTAlVTMQww
CgYDVQQKEwNTVU4wHhcNMDEwMzE0MDEzMDM1WhcNMDUwMzE0MDEzMDM1WjAbMQsw
CQYDVQQGEwJVUzEMMAoGA1UEChMDU1VOMFowDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQADSQAwRgJB
APDhqpKgjgRoRUr6twTMTtSuNsReEnFoReVer!ztpXpQK6ybYlRH18JIqU/uCV/r
26R/cVXTy5qc5NbMwA40KzcCASOjIDAeMAsGA1UdDwQEAwIFoDAPBgNVHREECDAG
hwQBAgMEMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBAUAA0EApTRD23KzN95GMvPD71hwwClukslKLVg8
f1xm9ZsHLPJLRxHFwsqqjAad4j4wwwriiUmGAHLTGB0lJMl8xsgxag==
-----END X509 CERTIFICATE-----


Example 2: Generating a CA Request




Generating a CA request appears the same as the self-signed certificate.
The only differences between the two is the option -c instead of -s, and
the certificate data is a CA request.


example# ikecert certlocal -kc -m 512 -t rsa-md5 \
-D "C=US, O=SUN" -A IP=1.2.3.4


Example 3: A CA Request Using a Hardware Key Store




The following example illustrates the specification of a token using the
-T option.


example# # ikecert certlocal -kc -m 1024 -t rsa-md5 -T vca0-keystore \
-D "C=US, O=SUN" -A IP=1.2.3.4


EXIT STATUS


The following exit values are returned:

0

Successful completion.


non-zero

An error occurred. Writes an appropriate error message to standard
error.


FILES


/etc/inet/secret/ike.privatekeys/*

Private keys. A private key must have a matching public-key
certificate with the same filename in /etc/inet/ike/publickeys/.


/etc/inet/ike/publickeys/*

Public-key certificates. The names are only important with regard to
matching private key names.


/etc/inet/ike/crls/*

Public key certificate revocation lists.


/etc/inet/ike/config

Consulted for the pathname of a PKCS#11 library.


ATTRIBUTES


See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:


+--------------------+-----------------+
| ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
+--------------------+-----------------+
|Interface Stability | Evolving |
+--------------------+-----------------+

SEE ALSO


ikeadm(1M), in.iked(1M), getdate(3C), ike.config(4), attributes(5),
pkcs11_softtoken(5)


Schneier, Bruce. Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source
Code in C. Second Edition. John Wiley & Sons. New York, NY. 1996.


RSA Labs, PKCS#11 v2.11: Cryptographic Token Interface Standards,
November 2001.

NOTES


The following is the validity date and time syntax when the -F or -S
flags are used:


For relative dates, the syntax is as follows:

{+,-}[Ns][Nm][Nh][Nd][Nw][NM][Ny]


where:

N

represents an integer


s

represents seconds


m

represents minutes


h

represents hours


d

represents days


w

represents weeks


M

represents months


y

represents years


These parameters can be given in any order. For example, "+3d12h" is
three and a half days from now, and "-3y2M" is three years and 2 months
ago.


All parameters with fixed values can be added up in absolute seconds.
Months and years, which have variable numbers of seconds, are calculated
using calendar time. Months and years, which are not of fixed length, are
defined such that adding a year or month means the same day next year or
month. For instance, if it is Jan 26, 2005 and the certificate should
expire 3 years and 1 month from today, the expiration (end validity time)
date will be Feb 26, 2008. Overflows are dealt with accordingly. For
example, one month from Jan 31, 2005 is March 3, 2005, since February has
only 28 days.


For absolute dates, the syntax of the date formats included in the file
/etc/datemsk are accepted (See getdate(3C) for details). Any date string
prepended with a "+" or "-" is treated as a time relative to the current
time, while others are treated as absolute dates. Sanity checking is also
done to ensure that the end validity date is greater than the start
validity date. For example, the following command would create a
certificate with start date 1 day and 2 hours ago and an end date of Jan
22nd, 2007 at 12:00:00 local time.

# ikecert certlocal -ks -t rsa-sha1 -m 1024 \
-D "CN=mycert, O=Sun, C=US" \
-S -1d2h -F "01/22/2007 12:00:00"


As in.iked(1M) can run only in the global zone and exclusive-IP zones,
this command is not useful in shared-IP zones.


April 9, 2016 IKECERT(1M)