AUDITREDUCE(1M) Maintenance Commands AUDITREDUCE(1M)


NAME


auditreduce - merge and select audit records from audit trail files

SYNOPSIS


auditreduce [options] [audit-trail-file]...


DESCRIPTION


auditreduce allows you to select or merge records from audit trail files.
Audit files can be from one or more machines.


The merge function merges together audit records from one or more input
audit trail files into a single output file. The records in an audit
trail file are assumed to be sorted in chronological order (oldest first)
and this order is maintained by auditreduce in the output file.


Unless instructed otherwise, auditreduce will merge the entire audit
trail, which consists of all the audit trail files in the directory
structure audit_root_dir/*/files. Unless specified with the -R or -S
option, audit_root_dir defaults to /etc/security/audit. By using the file
selection options it is possible to select some subset of these files, or
files from another directory, or files named explicitly on the command
line.


The select function allows audit records to be selected on the basis of
numerous criteria relating to the record's content (see audit.log(4) for
details of record content). A record must meet all of the record-
selection-option criteria to be selected.

Audit Trail Filename Format


Any audit trail file not named on the command line must conform to the
audit trail filename format. Files produced by the audit system already
have this format. Output file names produced by auditreduce are in this
format. It is:

start-time.end-time.suffix


where start-time is the 14-character timestamp of when the file was
opened, end-time is the 14-character timestamp of when the file was
closed, and suffix is the name of the machine which generated the audit
trail file, or some other meaningful suffix (for example, all, if the
file contains a combined group of records from many machines). The end-
time can be the literal string not_terminated, to indicate that the file
is still being written to by the audit system. Timestamps are of the form
yyyymmddhhmmss (year, month, day, hour, minute, second). The timestamps
are in Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

OPTIONS


File Selection Options


The file selection options indicate which files are to be processed and
certain types of special treatment.

-A

All of the records from the input files will be selected regardless
of their timestamp. This option effectively disables the -a, -b, and
-d options. This is useful in preventing the loss of records if the
-D option is used to delete the input files after they are processed.
Note, however, that if a record is not selected due to another
option, then -A will not override that.


-C

Only process complete files. Files whose filename end-time timestamp
is not_terminated are not processed (such a file is currently being
written to by the audit system). This is useful in preventing the
loss of records if -D is used to delete the input files after they
are processed. It does not apply to files specified on the command
line.


-D suffix

Delete input files after they are read if the entire run is
successful. If auditreduce detects an error while reading a file,
then that file is not deleted. If -D is specified, -A, -C and -O are
also implied. suffix is given to the -O option. This helps prevent
the loss of audit records by ensuring that all of the records are
written, only complete files are processed, and the records are
written to a file before being deleted. Note that if both -D and -O
are specified in the command line, the order of specification is
significant. The suffix associated with the latter specification is
in effect.


-M machine

Allows selection of records from files with machine as the filename
suffix. If -M is not specified, all files are processed regardless of
suffix. -M can also be used to allow selection of records from files
that contain combined records from many machines and have a common
suffix (such as all).


-N

Select objects in new mode.This flag is off by default, thus
retaining backward compatibility. In the existing, old mode,
specifying the -e, -f, -g, -r, or -u flags would select not only
actions taken with those IDs, but also certain objects owned by those
IDs. When running in new mode, only actions are selected. In order to
select objects, the -o option must be used.


-O suffix

Direct output stream to a file in the current audit_root_dir with the
indicated suffix. suffix can alternatively contain a full pathname,
in which case the last component is taken as the suffix, ahead of
which the timestamps will be placed, ahead of which the remainder of
the pathname will be placed. If the -O option is not specified, the
output is sent to the standard output. When auditreduce places
timestamps in the filename, it uses the times of the first and last
records in the merge as the start-time and end-time.


-Q

Quiet. Suppress notification about errors with input files.


-R pathname

Specify the pathname of an alternate audit root directory
audit_root_dir to be pathname. Therefore, rather than using
/etc/security/audit/*/files by default, pathname/*/files will be
examined instead.

Note -

The root file system of any non-global zones must not be referenced
with the -R option. Doing so might damage the global zone's file
system, might compromise the security of the global zone, and might
damage the non-global zone's file system. See zones(5).


-S server

This option causes auditreduce to read audit trail files from a
specific location (server directory). server is normally interpreted
as the name of a subdirectory of the audit root, therefore
auditreduce will look in audit_root_dir/server/files for the audit
trail files. But if server contains any `/' characters, it is the
name of a specific directory not necessarily contained in the audit
root. In this case, server/files will be consulted. This option
allows archived files to be manipulated easily, without requiring
that they be physically located in a directory structure like that of
/etc/security/audit.


-V

Verbose. Display the name of each file as it is opened, and how many
records total were written to the output stream.


Record Selection Options


The record selection options listed below are used to indicate which
records are written to the output file produced by auditreduce.


Multiple arguments of the same type are not permitted.

-a date-time

Select records that occurred at or after date-time. The date-time
argument is described under Option Arguments, below. date-time is in
local time. The -a and -b options can be used together to form a
range.


-b date-time

Select records that occurred before date-time.


-c audit-classes

Select records by audit class. Records with events that are mapped to
the audit classes specified by audit-classes are selected. Audit
class names are defined in audit_class(4). Using the audit flags, one
can select records based upon success and failure criteria.


-d date-time

Select records that occurred on a specific day (a 24-hour period
beginning at 00:00:00 of the day specified and ending at 23:59:59).
The day specified is in local time. The time portion of the argument,
if supplied, is ignored. Any records with timestamps during that day
are selected. If any hours, minutes, or seconds are given in time,
they are ignored. -d can not be used with -a or -b.


-e effective-user

Select records with the specified effective-user.


-f effective-group

Select records with the specified effective-group.


-g real-group

Select records with the specified real-group.


-j subject-ID

Select records with the specified subject-ID where subject-ID is a
process ID.


-l label

Select records with the specified label (or label range), as
explained under "Option Arguments," below. This option is available
only if the system is configured with Trusted Extensions.


-m event

Select records with the indicated event. The event is the literal
string or the event number.


-o object_type=objectID_value

Select records by object type. A match occurs when the record
contains the information describing the specified object_type and the
object ID equals the value specified by objectID_value. The allowable
object types and values are as follows:

file=pathname

Select records containing file system objects with the specified
pathname, where pathname is a comma separated list of regular
expressions. If a regular expression is preceded by a tilde (~),
files matching the expression are excluded from the output. For
example, the option file=~/usr/openwin,/usr,/etc would select all
files in /usr or /etc except those in /usr/openwin. The order of
the regular expressions is important because auditreduce
processes them from left to right, and stops when a file is known
to be either selected or excluded. Thus the option file= /usr,
/etc, ~/usr/openwin would select all files in /usr and all files
in /etc. Files in /usr/openwin are not excluded because the
regular expression /usr is matched first. Care should be given
in surrounding the pathname with quotes so as to prevent the
shell from expanding any tildes.


filegroup=group

Select records containing file system objects with group as the
owning group.


fileowner=user

Select records containing file system objects with user as the
owning user.


msgqid=ID

Select records containing message queue objects with the
specified ID where ID is a message queue ID.


msgqgroup=group

Select records containing message queue objects with group as the
owning or creating group.


msgqowner=user

Select records containing message queue objects with user as the
owning or creating user.


pid=ID

Select records containing process objects with the specified ID
where ID is a process ID. Process are objects when they are
receivers of signals.


procgroup=group

Select records containing process objects with group as the real
or effective group.


procowner=user

Select records containing process objects with user as the real
or effective user.


semid=ID

Select records containing semaphore objects with the specified ID
where ID is a semaphore ID.


semgroup=group

Select records containing semaphore objects with group as the
owning or creating group.


semowner=user

Select records containing semaphore objects with user as the
owning or creating user.


shmid=ID

Select records containing shared memory objects with the
specified ID where ID is a shared memory ID.


shmgroup=group

Select records containing shared memory objects with group as the
owning or creating group.


shmowner=user

Select records containing shared memory objects with user as the
owning or creating user.


sock=port_number|machine

Select records containing socket objects with the specified
port_number or the specified machine where machine is a machine
name as defined in hosts(4).


fmri=service instance

Select records containing fault management resource identifier
(FMRI) objects with the specified service instance. See smf(5).


-r real-user

Select records with the specified real-user.


-s session-id

Select audit records with the specified session-id.


-u audit-user

Select records with the specified audit-user.


-z zone-name

Select records from the specified zone name. The zone name selection
is case-sensitive.


When one or more filename arguments appear on the command line, only the
named files are processed. Files specified in this way need not conform
to the audit trail filename format. However, -M, -S, and -R must not be
used when processing named files. If the filename is ``-'' then the input
is taken from the standard input.

Option Arguments


audit-trail-file

An audit trail file as defined in audit.log(4). An audit trail file
not named on the command line must conform to the audit trail file
name format. Audit trail files produced as output of auditreduce are
in this format as well. The format is:

start-time . end-time . suffix

start-time is the 14 character time stamp denoting when the file was
opened. end-time is the 14 character time stamp denoting when the
file was closed. end-time can also be the literal string
not_terminated, indicating the file is still be written to by the
audit daemon or the file was not closed properly (a system crash or
abrupt halt occurred). suffix is the name of the machine that
generated the audit trail file (or some other meaningful suffix; for
example, all would be a good suffix if the audit trail file contains
a combined group of records from many machines).


date-time

The date-time argument to -a, -b, and -d can be of two forms: An
absolute date-time takes the form:

yyyymmdd [ hh [ mm [ ss ]]]

where yyyy specifies a year (with 1970 as the earliest value), mm is
the month (01-12), dd is the day (01-31), hh is the hour (00-23), mm
is the minute (00-59), and ss is the second (00-59). The default is
00 for hh, mm and ss.

An offset can be specified as: +n d|h|m| s where n is a number of
units, and the tags d, h, m, and s stand for days, hours, minutes and
seconds, respectively. An offset is relative to the starting time.
Thus, this form can only be used with the -b option.


event

The literal string or ordinal event number as found in
audit_event(4). If event is not found in the audit_event file it is
considered invalid.


group

The literal string or ordinal group ID number as found in group(4).
If group is not found in the group file it is considered invalid.
group can be negative.


label

The literal string representation of a MAC label or a range of two
valid MAC labels. To specify a range, use x;y where x and y are valid
MAC labels. Only those records that are fully bounded by x and y will
be selected. If x or y is omitted, the default uses ADMIN_LOW or
ADMIN_HIGH respectively. Notice that quotes must be used when
specifying a range.


pathname

A regular expression describing a pathname.


user

The literal username or ordinal user ID number as found in passwd(4).
If the username is not found in the passwd file it is considered
invalid. user can be negative.


EXAMPLES


Example 1: The auditreduce command




praudit(1M) is available to display audit records in a human-readable
form.


This will display the entire audit trail in a human-readable form:


% auditreduce | praudit


If all the audit trail files are being combined into one large file, then
deleting the original files could be desirable to prevent the records
from appearing twice:


% auditreduce -V -D /etc/security/audit/combined/all


This displays what user milner did on April 13, 1988. The output is
displayed in a human-readable form to the standard output:


% auditreduce -d 19880413 -u milner | praudit


The above example might produce a large volume of data if milner has been
busy. Perhaps looking at only login and logout times would be simpler.
The -c option will select records from a specified class:


% auditreduce -d 19880413 -u milner -c lo | praudit


To see milner's login/logout activity for April 13, 14, and 15, the
following is used. The results are saved to a file in the current working
directory. Notice that the name of the output file will have milnerlo as
the suffix, with the appropriate timestamp prefixes. Notice also that the
long form of the name is used for the -c option:


% auditreduce -a 19880413 -b +3d -u milner -c login_logout -O milnerlo


To follow milner's movement about the file system on April 13, 14, and 15
the chdir record types could be viewed. Notice that in order to get the
same time range as the above example we needed to specify the -b time as
the day after our range. This is because 19880416 defaults to midnight of
that day, and records before that fall on 0415, the end-day of the range.


% auditreduce -a 19880413 -b 19880416 -u milner -m AUE_CHDIR | praudit


In this example, the audit records are being collected in summary form
(the login/logout records only). The records are being written to a
summary file in a different directory than the normal audit root to
prevent the selected records from existing twice in the audit root.


% auditreduce -d 19880330 -c lo -O /etc/security/audit_summary/logins


If activity for user ID 9944 has been observed, but that user is not
known to the system administrator, then the command in the following
example searches the entire audit trail for any records generated by that
user. auditreduce queries the system about the current validity of ID
9944 and displays a warning message if it is not currently active:


% auditreduce -O /etc/security/audit_suspect/user9944 -u 9944


To get an audit log of only the global zone:


% auditreduce -z global


FILES


/etc/security/audit/server/files/*

location of audit trails, when stored


ATTRIBUTES


See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:


+--------------------+-----------------+
| ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
+--------------------+-----------------+
|Interface Stability | See below. |
+--------------------+-----------------+


The command invocation is Stable. The binary file format is Stable. The
binary file contents is Unstable.

SEE ALSO


praudit(1M), audit.log(4), audit_class(4), group(4), hosts(4), passwd(4),
attributes(5), smf(5)

DIAGNOSTICS


auditreduce displays error messages if there are command line errors and
then exits. If there are fatal errors during the run, auditreduce
displays an explanatory message and exits. In this case, the output file
might be in an inconsistent state (no trailer or partially written
record) and auditreduce displays a warning message before exiting.
Successful invocation returns 0 and unsuccessful invocation returns 1.


Since auditreduce might be processing a large number of input files, it
is possible that the machine-wide limit on open files will be exceeded.
If this happens, auditreduce displays a message to that effect, give
information on how many file there are, and exit.


If auditreduce displays a record's timestamp in a diagnostic message,
that time is in local time. However, when filenames are displayed, their
timestamps are in GMT.

BUGS


Conjunction, disjunction, negation, and grouping of record selection
options should be allowed.

NOTES


The -z option should be used only if the audit policy zonename is set. If
there is no zonename token, then no records will be selected.


March 6, 2017 AUDITREDUCE(1M)