TYPESET(1) User Commands TYPESET(1)


NAME


typeset, whence - shell built-in functions to set/get attributes and
values for shell variables and functions

SYNOPSIS


typeset [+- HLRZfilrtux [n]] [name[=value]]...


whence [-pv] name...


ksh93
++typeset [+-AHflbnprtux] [+-EFLRZi[n]] [vname[=value]]


whence [-afpv] name...


DESCRIPTION


ksh
typeset sets attributes and values for shell variables and functions.
When typeset is invoked inside a function, a new instance of the
variables name is created. The variables value and type are restored when
the function completes. The following list of attributes can be
specified:

-f
The names refer to function names rather than variable names. No
assignments can be made and the only other valid flags are -t, -u
and -x. The flag -t turns on execution tracing for this function.
The flag -u causes this function to be marked undefined. The FPATH
variable is searched to find the function definition when the
function is referenced. The flag -x allows the function definition
to remain in effect across shell procedures invoked by name.


-H
This flag provides UNIX to hostname file mapping on non-UNIX
machines.


-i
Parameter is an integer. This makes arithmetic faster. If n is non-
zero it defines the output arithmetic base; otherwise, the first
assignment determines the output base.


-l
All uppercase characters are converted to lowercase. The uppercase
flag, -u is turned off.


-L
Left justify and remove leading blanks from value. If n is non-zero
it defines the width of the field; otherwise, it is determined by
the width of the value of first assignment. When the variable is
assigned to, it is filled on the right with blanks or truncated, if
necessary, to fit into the field. Leading zeros are removed if the
-Z flag is also set. The -R flag is turned off.


-r
The specified names are marked readonly and these names cannot be
changed by subsequent assignment.


-R
Right justify and fill with leading blanks. If n is non-zero it
defines the width of the field, otherwise it is determined by the
width of the value of first assignment. The field is left filled
with blanks or truncated from the end if the variable is
reassigned. The -L flag is turned off.


-t
Tags the variables. Tags are user definable and have no special
meaning to the shell.


-u
All lowercase characters are converted to uppercase characters. The
lowercase flag, -l is turned off.


-x
The specified names are marked for automatic export to the
environment of subsequently-executed commands.


-Z
Right justify and fill with leading zeros if the first non-blank
character is a digit and the -L flag has not been set. If n is non-
zero it defines the width of the field. Otherwise, it is determined
by the width of the value of first assignment.


The -i attribute can not be specified along with -R, -L, -Z, or -f.


Using + rather than - causes these flags to be turned off. If no name
arguments are specified but flags are specified, a list of names (and
optionally the values) of the variables which have these flags set is
printed. (Using + rather than - keeps the values from being printed.) If
no names and flags are specified, the names and attributes of all
variables are printed.


For each name, whence indicates how it would be interpreted if used as a
command name.


The -v flag produces a more verbose report.


The -p flag does a path search for name even if name is an alias, a
function, or a reserved word.


On this manual page, ksh(1) commands that are preceded by one or two *
(asterisks) are treated specially in the following ways:

1. Variable assignment lists preceding the command remain in
effect when the command completes.

2. I/O redirections are processed after variable assignments.

3. Errors cause a script that contains them to abort.

4. Words, following a command preceded by ** that are in the
format of a variable assignment, are expanded with the same
rules as a variable assignment. This means that tilde
substitution is performed after the = sign and word splitting
and file name generation are not performed.

ksh93
If the -f option is not specified, typeset sets, unsets, or displays
attributes of variables as specified with the options. If the first
option is specified with a - then the attributes are set for each of the
specified names. If the first option is specified with a +, then the
specified attributes are unset. If =value is specified, value is assigned
before the attributes are set.


When typeset is called inside a function that is defined with the
function reserved word, and name does not contain a ., a local variable
statically scoped to that function is created.


Not all option combinations are possible. For example, the numeric
options -i, -E, and -F cannot be specified with the justification options
-L, -R, and -Z.


The following preset aliases are set by the shell:

float
typeset -E


functions
typeset -f


integer
typeset -i


nameref
typeset -n


If no names are specified, variables that have the specified options are
displayed. If the first option is specified with a leading - then the
name and value of each variable is written to standard output. Otherwise,
only the names are written. If no options or only the -p option are
specified, the names and attributes of all variables that have attributes
are written to standard output. When -f is specified, the names displayed
are function names.


If -f is specified, then each name refers to a function and the only
valid options are -u and -t. In this case no =value can be specified.


typeset is built-in to the shell as a declaration command so that field
splitting and pathname expansion are not performed on the arguments.
Tilde expansion occurs on value.


The following options are supported by the typeset built-in command in
ksh93:

-a
Indexed array. This is the default.


-A
Associative array. Each name is converted to an associative
array. If a variable already exists, the current value
becomes index 0.


-b
Each name can contain binary data. Its value is the mime
base64 encoding of the data. This option can be used with
-Z, to specify fixed sized fields.


-C
Reserved for future use.


-E [n]
Floating point number represented in scientific notation. n
specifies the number of significant figures when the value
is expanded. The default value is 10.


-f
Each of the options and names refers to a function.


-F [n]
Floating point. n is the number of places after the decimal
point when the value is expanded. The default value is 10.


-h
Reserved for future use.


-H
Hostname mapping. Each name holds a native pathname.
Assigning a UNIX format pathname causes it to be converted
to a pathname suitable for the current host. This has no
effect when the native system is UNIX.


-i [base]
An integer. base represents the arithmetic base from 2 to
64. The option value can be omitted. The default value is
10.


-l
Convert uppercase characters to lowercase characters. Unsets
the -u option. When used with -i, -E, or -F indicates long
variant.


-L [n]
Left justify. If n is specified, it represents the field
width. If the -Z attribute is also specified, then leading
zeros are stripped. The option value can be omitted.


-n
Name reference. The value is the name of a variable that
name references. name cannot contain a ..


-p
Causes the output to be in a format that can be used as
input to the shell to recreate the attributes for variables.


-r
Enables read-only. Once this option is enabled, it cannot be
disabled. See readonly(1).


-R [n]
Right justify. If n is specified it represents the field
width. If the -Z option is also specified, zeros are used as
the fill character. Otherwise, SPACEs are used.


-s
Restricts integer size to short when used with -i.


-S
When used inside a function defined with the function
reserved word, the specified variables will have function
static scope.


-t
When used with -f, enables tracing for each of the specified
functions. Otherwise, -t is a user defined attribute and
has no meaning to the shell.


-T tname
tname is the name of a type name given to each name.


-u
Without -f or -i, converts lowercase characters to uppercase
and unsets -l. When used with -f, specifies that name is a
function that has not yet been loaded. When used with -i
specifies that the value is displayed as an unsigned
integer.


-x
Puts each name on the export list. See export(1). name
cannot contain a ..


-X [n]
Floating point number represented in hexadecimal notation. n
specifies the number of significant figures when the value
is expanded. The option value may be omitted. The default
value is 10.


-Z [n]
Zero fill. If n is specified it represents the field width.
The option value can be omitted.


The following exit values are returned by typeset in ksh93:

0
Successful completion.


>0
An error occurred.


If the -v is not specified, whence writes on standard output an absolute
pathname, if any, corresponding to name based on the complete search
order that the shell uses. If name is not found, no output is produced.


If the -v is specified, the output from whence also contains information
that indicates how the specified name would be interpreted by the shell
in the current execution environment.


The following options are supported by the whence built-in command in
ksh93:

-a
Display all uses for each name rather than the first.


-f
Do not check for functions.


-p
Do not check to see if name is a reserved word, a built-in, an
alias, or a function.


-v
For each name specified, the shell displays a line that indicates
if that name is one of the following:

o Reserved word

o Alias

o Built-in

o Undefined function

o Function

o Tracked alias

o Program

o Not found


The following exit values are returned by whence in ksh93:

0
Successful completion. Each name was found by the shell.


1
One or more names were not found by the shell.


>1
An error occurred.


On this manual page, ksh93(1) commands that are preceded by one or two +
(plus signs) are treated specially in the following ways:

1. Variable assignment lists preceding the command remain in
effect when the command completes.

2. I/O redirections are processed after variable assignments.

3. Errors cause a script that contains them to abort.

4. They are not valid function names.

5. Words, following a command preceded by ++ that are in the
format of a variable assignment, are expanded with the same
rules as a variable assignment. This means that tilde
substitution is performed after the = sign and word splitting
and file name generation are not performed.

SEE ALSO


ksh(1), ksh93(1), readonly(1), set(1), sh(1), attributes(5)


August 11, 2009 TYPESET(1)