SUM(1) User Commands SUM(1)


NAME


sum - print checksum and block count for a file

SYNOPSIS


/usr/bin/sum [-abBchHlLpPrRstTw] [-x method] [file...]


ksh93
sum [-abBchHlLpPrRstTw] [-x method] [file...]


DESCRIPTION


The sum utility and ksh93 built-in command list the checksum, and for
most methods the block count, for each file argument. The standard input
is read if there are no file arguments.


The getconf(1) UNIVERSE determines the default sum method: att for the
att universe, bsd otherwise. The default for the other commands is the
command name itself. The att method is a true sum, all others are order
dependent.


Method names consist of a leading identifier and 0 or more options
separated by -.


getconf PATH_RESOLVE determines how symbolic links are handled. This can
be explicitly overridden by the --logical, --metaphysical, and --physical
options below. PATH_RESOLVE can be one of:

--logical
Follow all symbolic links.


--metaphysical
Follow command argument symbolic links, otherwise do
not follow.


--physical
Do not follow symbolic links.


OPTIONS


The following options are supported for /usr/bin/sum:

-a
--all

List the checksum for all files. Use with --total to list both
individual and total checksums and block counts.


-b
--binary

Read files in binary mode. This is the default.


-B
--scale=scale

Block count scale (bytes per block) override for methods that include
size in the output. The default is method-specific.


-c
--check

Each file is interpreted as the output from a previous sum. If
--header or --permissions was specified in the previous sum then the
checksum method is automatically determined, otherwise --method must
be specified. The listed checksum is compared with the current value
and a warning is issued for each file that does not match. If file
was generated by --permissions, then the file mode, user and group
are also checked. Empty lines, lines starting with #<space>, or the
line # are ignored. Lines containing no blanks are interpreted as
[no]name[=value] options:

method=name

Checksum method to apply to subsequent lines.


permissions

Subsequent lines were generated with --permissions.


-h
--header

Print the checksum method as the first output line. Used with --check
and --permissions.


-l
--list

Each file is interpreted as a list of files, one per line, that is
checksummed.


-p
--permissions

If --check is not specified then list the file mode, user and group
between the checksum and path. User and group matching the caller are
output as -. If --check is specified then the mode, user and group
for each path in file are updated if necessary to match those in
file. A warning is printed on the standard error for each changed
file.


-R
--recursive

Recursively checksum the contents of directories.


-t
--total

List only the total checksum and block count of all files. --all
--total lists each checksum and the total. The total checksum and
block count may be different from the checksum and block count of the
catenation of all files due to partial blocks that may occur when the
files are treated separately.


-T
--text

Read files in text mode (for example, treat \r\n as \n).


-w
--warn

Warn about invalid --check lines. On by default; -w means --nowarn.


-x
--method|algorithm=method

Specifies the checksum method to apply. Parenthesized method options
are readonly implementation details.

att|sys5|s5|default

The system 5 release 4 checksum. This is the default for sum when
getconf UNIVERSE is att. This is the only true sum; all of the
other methods are order dependent.


ast4|32x4|tw

The ast 128 bit PRNG hash generated by catenating 4 separate 32
bit PNRG hashes. The block count is not printed.


bsd|ucb

The BSD checksum.


crc

32 bit CRC (cyclic redundancy check).

polynomial=mask

The 32 bit crc polynomial bitmask with implicit bit 32. The
default value is 0xedb88320.


done[=number]

XOR the final crc value with number. 0xffffffff is used if
number is omitted. The option value may be omitted. The
default value is 0.


init[=number]

The initial crc value. 0xffffffff is used if number is
omitted. The option value may be omitted. The default value
is 0.


rotate

XOR each input character with the high order crc byte
(instead of the low order).


size[=number]

Include the total number of bytes in the crc. number, if
specified, is first XOR'd into the size. The option value may
be omitted. The default value is 0.


prng

32 bit PRNG (pseudo random number generator) hash.

mpy=number
The 32 bit PRNG multiplier. The default value is
0x01000193.


add=number
The 32 bit PRNG addend. The default value is 0.


init[=number]
The PRNG initial value. 0xffffffff is used if
number is omitted. The option value may be
omitted. The default value is 0x811c9dc5.


md4|MD4

RFC1320 MD4 message digest. Cryptographically weak. The block
count is not printed. (version) md4 (solaris -lmd) 2005-07-26


md5|MD5

RFC1321 MD5 message digest. Cryptographically weak. The block
count is not printed. (version) md5 (solaris -lmd) 2005-07-26


sha1|SHA1|sha-1|SHA-1

RFC3174 / FIPS 180-1 SHA-1 secure hash algorithm 1.
Cryptographically weak. The block count is not printed. (version)
sha1 (solaris -lmd) 2005-07-26


sha256|sha-256|SHA256|SHA-256

FIPS 180-2 SHA256 secure hash algorithm. The block count is not
printed. (version) sha256 (solaris -lmd) 2005-07-26


sha384|sha-384|SHA384|SHA-384

FIPS 180-2 SHA384 secure hash algorithm. The block count is not
printed. (version) sha384 (solaris -lmd) 2005-07-26


sha512|sha-512|SHA512|SHA-512

FIPS 180-2 SHA512 secure hash algorithm. The block count is not
printed. (version) sha512 (solaris -lmd) 2005-07-26


posix|cksum|std|standard

The posix 1003.2-1992 32 bit crc checksum. This is the default
cksum(1) method. Shorthand for crc-0x04c11db7-rotate-done-size.


zip

The zip(1) crc. Shorthand for crc-0xedb88320-init-done.


fddi

The FDDI crc. Shorthand for crc-0xedb88320-size=0xcc55cc55.


fnv|fnv1

The Fowler-Noll-Vo 32 bit PRNG hash with non-zero initializer
(FNV-1). Shorthand for prng-0x01000193-init=0x811c9dc5.


ast|strsum

The ast strsum PRNG hash. Shorthand for
prng-0x63c63cd9-add=0x9c39c33d.


-L
--logical|follow

Follow symbolic links when traversing directories. The default is
determined by getconf PATH_RESOLVE.


-H
--metaphysical

Follow command argument symbolic links, otherwise do not follow
symbolic links when traversing directories. The default is determined
by getconf PATH_RESOLVE.


-P
--physical

Do not follow symbolic links when traversing directories. The default
is determined by getconf PATH_RESOLVE.


-r
--bsd

Equivalent to --method=bsd --scale=512 for compatibility with other
sum implementations.


-s
--sysv

Equivalent to --method=sys5 for compatibility with other sum
implementations.


-S
--silent|status

No output for --check; 0 exit status means all sums matched, non-0
means at least one sum failed to match. Ignored for --permissions.


OPERANDS


The following operands are supported:

file
A path name of a file. If no files are named, the standard input
is used.


USAGE


See largefile(7) for the description of the behavior of sum when
encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2^31 bytes).

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES


See environ(7) for descriptions of the following environment variables
that affect the execution of sum: LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH.

EXIT STATUS


The following exit values are returned.

0
Successful completion.


>0
An error occurred.


ATTRIBUTES


See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:


+---------------+-----------------+
|ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
+---------------+-----------------+
|CSI | Enabled |
+---------------+-----------------+

SEE ALSO


cksum(1), digest(1), getconf(1), ksh93(1), wc(1), zip(1), sum(1B),
libmd(3LIB), attributes(7), environ(7), largefile(7)

DIAGNOSTICS


Read error is indistinguishable from end of file on most devices. Check
the block count.

NOTES


Portable applications should use cksum(1). The default algorithm for this
command is defined in the POSIX standard and is identical across
platforms.


sum and /usr/ucb/sum (see sum(1B)) return different checksums.


May 23, 2021 SUM(1)