SET(1) User Commands SET(1)


NAME


set, unset, setenv, unsetenv, export - shell built-in functions to
determine the characteristics for environmental variables of the current
shell and its descendents

SYNOPSIS


sh
set [--aefhkntuvx [argument]]...


unset [name]...


export [name]...


csh
set [var [= value]]


set var [n] = word


unset pattern


setenv [VAR [word]]


unsetenv variable


ksh
set [+-abCefhkmnopstuvx] [+-o option]... [+-A name]
[arg]...


unset [-f] name...


**export [name [=value]]...


**export [-p]


ksh93
+set [+-abCefGhkmnoprstuvx] [+-o option]... [+-A vname]
[arg]...


+unset [-fnv] vname...


++export [-p] [name[=value]]...


DESCRIPTION


sh
The set built-in command has the following options:

--
Does not change any of the flags. This option is useful in setting
$1 to -.


-a
Marks variables which are modified or created for export.


-e
Exits immediately if a command exits with a non-zero exit status.


-f
Disables file name generation.


-h
Locates and remembers function commands as functions are defined.
Function commands are normally located when the function is
executed.


-k
All keyword arguments are placed in the environment for a command,
not just those that precede the command name.


-n
Reads commands but does not execute them.


-t
Exits after reading and executing one command.


-u
Treats unset variables as an error when substituting.


-v
Prints shell input lines as they are read.


-x
Prints commands and their arguments as they are executed.


Using + rather than - causes these flags to be turned off. These flags
can also be used upon invocation of the shell. The current set of flags
can be found in $-. The remaining arguments are positional parameters and
are assigned, in order, to $1, $2, .... If no arguments are specified the
values of all names are printed.


For each name, unset removes the corresponding variable or function
value. The variables PATH, PS1, PS2, MAILCHECK, and IF cannot be unset.


With the export built-in, the specified names are marked for automatic
export to the environment of subsequently executed commands. If no
arguments are specified, variable names that have been marked for export
during the current shell's execution are listed. Function names are not
exported.

csh
With no arguments, set displays the values of all shell variables.
Multiword values are displayed as a parenthesized list. With the var
argument alone, set assigns an empty (null) value to the variable var.
With arguments of the form var = value set assigns value to var, where
value is one of:

word
A single word (or quoted string).


(wordlist)
A space-separated list of words enclosed in parentheses.


Values are command and filename expanded before being assigned. The form
set var[n]=word replaces the n'th word in a multiword value with word.


unset removes variables whose names match (filename substitution)
pattern. All variables are removed by `unset *'.


With no arguments, setenv displays all environment variables. With the
VAR argument, setenv sets the environment variable VAR to an empty
(null) value. (By convention, environment variables are normally
specified upper-case names.) With both VAR and word arguments specified,
setenv sets VAR to word, which must be either a single word or a quoted
string. The PATH variable can take multiple word arguments, separated by
colons (see EXAMPLES). The most commonly used environment variables,
USER, TERM, and PATH, are automatically imported to and exported from the
csh variables user, term, and path. Use setenv if you need to change
these variables. In addition, the shell sets the PWD environment variable
from the csh variable cwd whenever the latter changes.


The environment variables LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_TIME, LC_COLLATE,
LC_NUMERIC, and LC_MONETARY take immediate effect when changed within the
C shell. See environ(5) for descriptions of these environment variables.


unsetenv removes variable from the environment. As with unset, pattern
matching is not performed.

ksh
The flags for the set built-in have meaning as follows:

-A
Array assignment. Unsets the variable name and assigns
values sequentially from the list arg. If +A is used, the
variable name is not unset first.


-a
All subsequent variables that are defined are automatically
exported.


-b
Causes the shell to notify the user asynchronously of
background job completions.


-C
Prevents existing files from being overwritten by the
shell's > redirection operator. The >| redirection operator
overrides this noclobber option for an individual file.


-e
If a command has a non-zero exit status, executes the ERR
trap, if set, and exits. This mode is disabled while reading
profiles.


-f
Disables file name generation.


-h
Each command becomes a tracked alias when first encountered.


-k
All variable assignment arguments are placed in the
environment for a command, not just those that precede the
command name.


-m
Background jobs run in a separate process group and a line
prints upon completion. The exit status of background jobs
is reported in a completion message. On systems with job
control, this flag is turned on automatically for
interactive shells.


-n
Reads commands and checks them for syntax errors, but does
not execute them. Ignored for interactive shells.


+o
Writes the current option settings to standard output in a
format that is suitable for reinput to the shell as commands
that achieve the same option settings.


-o option
The option argument can be one of the following option
names:

allexport
Same as -a.


errexit
Same as -e.


bgnice
All background jobs are run at a lower
priority. This is the default mode. emacs
Puts you in an emacs style in-line editor for
command entry.


gmacs
Puts you in a gmacs style in-line editor for
command entry.


ignoreeof
The shell does not exit on end-of-file. The
command exit must be used.


keyword
Same as -k.


markdirs
All directory names resulting from file name
generation have a trailing / appended.


monitor
Same as -m.


noclobber
Prevents redirection operator > from
truncating existing files. Requires the >|
operator to truncate a file when turned on.
Same as -C.


noexec
Same as -n.


noglob
Same as -f.


nolog
Does not save function definitions in history
file.


notify
Same as -b.


nounset
Same as -u.


privileged
Same as -p.


verbose
Same as -v.


trackall
Same as -h.


vi
Puts you in insert mode of a vi style in-line
editor until you hit escape character 033.
This puts you in control mode. A return sends
the line.


viraw
Each character is processed as it is typed in
vi mode.


xtrace
Same as -x.


If no option name is supplied then the current option settings are
printed.

-p
Disables processing of the $HOME/.profile file and uses the file
/etc/suid_profile instead of the ENV file. This mode is on
whenever the effective uid is not equal to the real uid, or when
the effective gid is not equal to the real gid. Turning this off
causes the effective uid and gid to be set to the real uid and
gid.


-s
Sorts the positional parameters lexicographically.


-t
Exits after reading and executing one command.


-u
Treats unset parameters as an error when substituting.


-v
Prints shell input lines as they are read.


-x
Prints commands and their arguments as they are executed.


-
Turns off -x and -v flags and stops examining arguments for
flags.


-
Does not change any of the flags. This option is useful in
setting $1 to a value beginning with -. If no arguments follow
this flag then the positional parameters are unset.


Using + rather than - causes these flags to be turned off. These flags
can also be used upon invocation of the shell. The current set of flags
can be found in $-. Unless -A is specified, the remaining arguments are
positional parameters and are assigned, in order, to $1 $2 .... If no
arguments are specified then the names and values of all variables are
printed on the standard output.


The variables specified by the list of names are unassigned, that is,
their values and attributes are erased. readonly variables cannot be
unset. If the -f flag is set, then the names refer to function names.
Unsetting ERRNO, LINENO, MAILCHECK, OPTARG, OPTIND, RANDOM, SECONDS,
TMOUT, and _ removes their special meaning even if they are subsequently
assigned.


When using unset, the variables specified by the list of names are
unassigned, i.e., their values and attributes are erased. readonly
variables cannot be unset. If the -f, flag is set, then the names refer
to function names. Unsetting ERRNO, LINENO, MAILCHECK, OPTARG, OPTIND,
RANDOM, SECONDS, TMOUT, and _ removes their special meaning even if they
are subsequently assigned.


With the export built-in, the specified names are marked for automatic
export to the environment of subsequently-executed commands.


When -p is specified, export writes to the standard output the names and
values of all exported variables in the following format:

"export %s=%s\n", name, value


if name is set, and:

"export %s\n", name


if name is unset.


The shell formats the output, including the proper use of quoting, so
that it is suitable for reinput to the shell as commands that achieve the
same exporting results, except for the following:

1. Read-only variables with values cannot be reset.

2. Variables that were unset at the time they were output are not
reset to the unset state if a value is assigned to the
variable between the time the state was saved and the time at
which the saved output is reinput to the shell.


On this manual page, ksh(1) commands that are preceded by one or two *
(asterisks) are treated specially in the following ways:

1. Variable assignment lists preceding the command remain in
effect when the command completes.

2. I/O redirections are processed after variable assignments.

3. Errors cause a script that contains them to abort.

4. Words, following a command preceded by ** that are in the
format of a variable assignment, are expanded with the same
rules as a variable assignment. This means that tilde
substitution is performed after the = sign and word splitting
and file name generation are not performed.

ksh93
set sets or unsets options and positional parameters. Options that are
specified with a - cause the options to be set. Options that are
specified with a + cause the option to be unset.


set without any options or arguments displays the names and values of all
shell variables in the order of the collation sequence in the current
locale. The values are quoted so that they are suitable for input again
to the shell.


If no arguments are specified, not even the end of options argument --,
the positional parameters are unchanged. Otherwise, unless the -A option
has been specified, the positional parameters are replaced by the list of
arguments. A first argument of -- is ignored when setting positional
parameters.


For backwards compatibility, a set command without any options specified,
whose first argument is - turns off the -v and -x options. If any
additional arguments are specified, they replace the positional
parameters.


The options for set in ksh93 are:

-a
Set the export attribute for each variable whose name does
not contain a . that you assign a value in the current
shell environment.


-A name
Assign the arguments sequentially to the array named by
name starting at subscript 0 rather than to the positional
parameters.


-b
The shell writes a message to standard error as soon it
detects that a background job completes rather than
waiting until the next prompt.


-B
Enable {...} group expansion. On by default.


-C
Prevents existing regular files from being overwritten
using the > redirection operator. The >| redirection
overrides this noclobber option.


-e
A simple command that has a non-zero exit status causes
the shell to exit unless the simple command is:

o contained in an && or || list

o the command immediately following if, while, or
until

o contained in the pipeline following !


-f
Pathname expansion is disabled.


-G
Causes ** by itself to also match all sub-directories
during pathname expansion.


-h
Obsolete. Causes each command whose name has the syntax of
an alias to become a tracked alias when it is first
encountered.


-H
Enable !-style history expansion similar to csh.


-k
This is obsolete. All arguments of the form name=value are
removed and placed in the variable assignment list for the
command. Ordinarily, variable assignments must precede
command arguments.


-m
When enabled, the shell runs background jobs in a separate
process group and displays a line upon completion. This
mode is enabled by default for interactive shells on
systems that support job control.


-n
The shell reads commands and checks for syntax errors, but
does not execute the command. Usually specified on command
invocation.


-o [option]
If option is not specified, the list of options and their
current settings is written to standard output. When
invoked with a + the options are written in a format that
can be input again to the shell to restore the settings.
This option can be repeated to enable or disable multiple
options.

The value of option must be one of the following:

allexport
Same as -a.


bgnice
All background jobs are run at lower
priorities.


braceexpand
Same as -B.


emacs
Enables or disables emacs editing mode.


errexit
Same as -e.


globstar
Equivalent to -G.


gmacs
Enables or disables gmacs. gmacs editing
mode is the same as emacs editing mode,
except for the handling of CTRL-T.


histexpand
Same as -H.


ignoreeof
The interactive shell does not exit on end-
of-file.


keyword
Same as -k.


markdirs
All directory names resulting from file
name generation have a trailing / appended.


monitor
Same as -m.


multiline
Use multiple lines when editing lines that
are longer than the window width.


noclobber
Same as -C.


noexec
Same as -n.


noglob
Same as -f.


nolog
This has no effect. It is provided for
backward compatibility.


notify
Same as -b.


nounset
Same as -u.


pipefail
A pipeline does not complete until all
components of the pipeline have completed,
and the exit status of the pipeline is the
value of the last command to exit with non-
zero exit status, or is zero if all
commands return zero exit status.


privileged
Same as -p.


showme
Simple commands preceded by a ; are traced
as if -x were enabled but not executed.


trackall
Same as -h.


verbose
Same as -v.


vi
Enables or disables vi editing mode.


viraw
Does not use canonical input mode when
using vi edit mode


xtrace
Same as -x.


-p
Privileged mode. Disabling -p sets the effective user id
to the real user id, and the effective group id to the
real group id. Enabling -p restores the effective user and
group ids to their values when the shell was invoked. The
-p option is on whenever the real and effective user id is
not equal or the real and effective group id is not equal.
User profiles are not processed when -p is enabled.


-r
Restricted. Enables restricted shell. This option cannot
be unset once enabled.


-s
Sort the positional parameters


-t
Obsolete. The shell reads one command and then exits.


-u
If enabled, the shell displays an error message when it
tries to expand a variable that is unset.


-v
Verbose. The shell displays its input onto standard error
as it reads it.


-x
Execution trace. The shell displays each command after all
expansion and before execution preceded by the expanded
value of the PS4 parameter.


The following exit values are returned by set in ksh93:

0
Successful completion.


>0
An error occurred.


For each name specified, unset unsets the variable, or function if -f is
specified, from the current shell execution environment. Read-only
variables cannot be unset.


The options for unset in ksh93 are:

-f
Where name refers to a function name, the shell unsets the function
definition.


-n
If name refers to variable that is a reference, the variable name
is unset rather than the variable it references. Otherwise, this
option is equivalent to the -v option.


-v
Where name refers to a variable name, the shell unsets it and
removes it from the environment. This is the default behavior.


The following exit values are returned by unset in ksh93:

0
Successful completion. All names were successfully unset.


>0
An error occurred, or one or more name operands could not be unset


export sets the export attribute on each of the variables specified by
name which causes them to be in the environment of subsequently executed
commands. If =value is specified, the variable name is set to value.


If no name is specified, the names and values of all exported variables
are written to standard output.


export is built-in to the shell as a declaration command so that field
splitting and pathname expansion are not performed on the arguments.
Tilde expansion occurs on value.


The options for export in ksh93 are:

-p
Causes the output to be in the form of export commands that can be
used as input to the shell to recreate the current exports.


The following exit values are returned by export in ksh93:

0
Successful completion.


>0
An error occurred.


On this manual page, ksh93(1) commands that are preceded by one or two +
are treated specially in the following ways:

1. Variable assignment lists preceding the command remain in
effect when the command completes.

2. I/O redirections are processed after variable assignments.

3. Errors cause a script that contains them to abort.

4. They are not valid function names.

5. Words, following a command preceded by ++ that are in the
format of a variable assignment, are expanded with the same
rules as a variable assignment. This means that tilde
substitution is performed after the = sign and field splitting
and file name generation are not performed.

EXAMPLES


csh
The following example sets the PATH variable to search for files in the
/bin, /usr/bin, /usr/sbin, and /usr/ucb/bin directories, in that order:

setenv PATH "/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:usr/ucb/bin"


SEE ALSO


csh(1), ksh(1), ksh93(1), read(1), sh(1), typeset(1), attributes(5),
environ(5)


November 20, 2007 SET(1)