NC(1) User Commands NC(1)


NAME


nc - arbitrary TCP and UDP connections and listens

SYNOPSIS


nc -h


nc [-46dnrtuvz] [-i interval] [-P proxy_username] [-p port]
[-s source_ip_address] [-T ToS] [-w timeout]
[-X proxy_protocol] [-x proxy_address[:port]]
hostname port_list


nc -l [-46Ddnrtuvz] [-i interval] [-T ToS] [hostname] port


nc -l [-46Ddnrtuvz] [-i interval] [-T ToS] -p port


nc -U [-Ddtvz] [-i interval] [-w timeout] path


nc -Ul [-46Ddktv] [-i interval] path


DESCRIPTION


The nc (or netcat) utility is used for a variety of tasks associated with
TCP or UDP. nc can open TCP connections, send UDP packets, listen on
arbitrary TCP and UDP ports, perform port scanning, and deal with both
IPv4 and IPv6. Unlike telnet(1), nc scripts nicely, and separates error
messages onto standard error instead of sending them to standard output.


The nc command is often used for the following tasks:

o simple TCP proxies

o shell-script based HTTP clients and servers

o network daemon testing

o a SOCKS or HTTP ProxyCommand for ssh(1)

OPTIONS


The following options are supported:

-4

Force nc to use IPv4 addresses only.


-6

Force nc to use IPv6 addresses only.


-D

Enable debugging on the socket.


-d

Do not attempt to read from stdin.


-h

Print nc help.


-i interval

Specify a delay time of interval between lines of text sent and
received. This option also causes a delay time between connections
to multiple ports.


-k

Force nc to listen for another connection after its current
connection is closed.

It is an error to use this option without the -l option.


-l

Listen for an incoming connection rather than initiate a connection
to a remote host.

It is an error to use this option in conjunction with the -s or -z
options. Additionally, any timeout specified with the -w option is
ignored.


-n

Do not do any naming or service lookups on any addresses, hostnames,
or ports.

Use of this option means that hostname and port arguments are
restricted to numeric values.

If used with -v option all addresses and ports are printed in numeric
form, in addition to the restriction imposed on the arguments. This
option does not have any effect when used in conjunction with the -U
option.


-P proxy_username

Specify a username (proxy_username) to present to a proxy server that
requires authentication. If proxy_username is not specified,
authentication is not attempted. Proxy authentication is only
supported for HTTP CONNECT proxies at present.

It is an error to use this option in conjunction with the -l option.


-p port

When used without -l option, specify the source port nc should use,
subject to privilege restrictions and availability. When used with
the -l option, set the listen port.

This option can be used with -l option only provided global port
argument is not specified.


-r

Choose source or destination ports randomly instead of sequentially
within a range or in the order that the system assigns them.

It is an error to use this option in conjunction with the -l option.


-s source_ip_address

Specify the IP of the interface which is used to send the packets.

It is an error to use this option in conjunction with the -l option.


-T ToS

Specify IP Type of Service (ToS) for the connection. Valid values are
the tokens: lowdelay, throughput, reliability, or an 8-bit
hexadecimal value preceded by 0x.


-t

Cause nc to send RFC 854 DON'T and WON'T responses to RFC 854 DO and
WILL requests. This makes it possible to use nc to script telnet
sessions.


-U

Specify the use of Unix Domain Sockets. If you specify this option
without -l, nc, it becomes AF_UNIX client. If you specify this option
with the -l option, a AF_UNIX server is created.

Use of this option requires that a single argument of a valid Unix
domain path has to be provided to nc, not a host name or port.


-u

Use UDP instead of the default option of TCP.


-v

Specify verbose output.


-w timeout

Silently close the connection if a connection and stdin are idle for
more than timeout seconds.

This option has no effect on the -l option, that is, nc listens
forever for a connection, with or without the -w flag. The default is
no timeout.


-X proxy_protocol

Use the specified protocol when talking to the proxy server.
Supported protocols are 4 (SOCKS v.4), 5 (SOCKS v.5) and connect
(HTTP proxy). If the protocol is not specified, SOCKS v. 5 is used.

It is an error to use this option in conjunction with the -l option.


-x proxy_address[:port]

Request connection to hostname using a proxy at proxy_address and
port. If port is not specified, the well-known port for the proxy
protocol is used (1080 for SOCKS, 3128 for HTTP).

It is an error to use this option in conjunction with the -l option.


-z

Scan for listening daemons, without sending any data to them.

It is an error to use this option in conjunction with the -l option.


OPERANDS


The following operands are supported:

hostname
Specify host name.

hostname can be a numerical IP address or a symbolic
hostname (unless the -n option is specified).

In general, hostname must be specified, unless the -l option
is given or -U is used (in which case the argument is a
path). If hostname argument is specified with -l option then
port argument must be given as well and nc tries to bind to
that address and port. If hostname argument is not specified
with -l option then nc tries to listen on a wildcard socket
for given port.


path
Specify pathname.


port
port_list
Specify port.

port_list can be specified as single integers, ranges or
combinations of both. Specify ranges in the form of nn-mm.
The port_list must have at least one member, but can have
multiple ports/ranges separated by commas.

In general, a destination port must be specified, unless the
-U option is given, in which case a Unix Domain Socket path
must be specified instead of hostname.


USAGE


Client/Server Model
It is quite simple to build a very basic client/server model using nc. On
one console, start nc listening on a specific port for a connection. For
example, the command:

$ nc -l 1234


listens on port 1234 for a connection. On a second console (or a second
machine), connect to the machine and port to which nc is listening:

$ nc 127.0.0.1 1234


There should now be a connection between the ports. Anything typed at the
second console is concatenated to the first, and vice-versa. After the
connection has been set up, nc does not really care which side is being
used as a server and which side is being used as a client. The connection
can be terminated using an EOF (Ctrl/d).

Data Transfer


The example in the previous section can be expanded to build a basic data
transfer model. Any information input into one end of the connection is
output to the other end, and input and output can be easily captured in
order to emulate file transfer.


Start by using nc to listen on a specific port, with output captured into
a file:

$ nc -l 1234 > filename.out


Using a second machine, connect to the listening nc process, feeding it
the file which is to be transferred:

$ nc host.example.com 1234 < filename.in


After the file has been transferred, the connection closes automatically.

Talking to Servers


It is sometimes useful to talk to servers by hand rather than through a
user interface. It can aid in troubleshooting, when it might be necessary
to verify what data a server is sending in response to commands issued by
the client.


For example, to retrieve the home page of a web site:

$ echo -n "GET / HTTP/1.0\r\n\r\n" | nc host.example.com 80


This also displays the headers sent by the web server. They can be
filtered, if necessary, by using a tool such as sed(1).


More complicated examples can be built up when the user knows the format
of requests required by the server. As another example, an email can be
submitted to an SMTP server using:

$ nc localhost 25 << EOF
HELO host.example.com
MAIL FROM: <user@host.example.com
RCTP TO: <user2@host.example.com
DATA
Body of email.
.
QUIT
EOF


Port Scanning


It can be useful to know which ports are open and running services on a
target machine. The -z flag can be used to tell nc to report open ports,
rather than to initiate a connection.


In this example:

$ nc -z host.example.com 20-30
Connection to host.example.com 22 port [tcp/ssh] succeeded!
Connection to host.example.com 25 port [tcp/smtp] succeeded!


The port range was specified to limit the search to ports 20 - 30.


Alternatively, it might be useful to know which server software is
running, and which versions. This information is often contained within
the greeting banners. In order to retrieve these, it is necessary to
first make a connection, and then break the connection when the banner
has been retrieved. This can be accomplished by specifying a small
timeout with the -w flag, or perhaps by issuing a QUIT command to the
server:

$ echo "QUIT" | nc host.example.com 20-30
SSH-2.0-Sun_SSH_1.1
Protocol mismatch.
220 host.example.com IMS SMTP Receiver Version 0.84 Ready


inetd Capabilities
One of the possible uses is to create simple services by using inetd(1M).


The following example creates a redirect from TCP port 8080 to port 80 on
host realwww:

# cat << EOF >> /etc/services
wwwredir 8080/tcp # WWW redirect
EOF
# cat << EOF > /tmp/wwwredir.conf
wwwredir stream tcp nowait nobody /usr/bin/nc /usr/bin/nc -w 3 realwww 80
EOF
# inetconv -i /tmp/wwwredir.conf
wwwredir -> /var/svc/manifest/network/wwwredir-tcp.xml
Importing wwwredir-tcp.xml ...Done
# inetadm -l wwwredir/tcp
SCOPE NAME=VALUE
name="wwwredir"
endpoint_type="stream"
proto="tcp"
isrpc=FALSE
wait=FALSE
exec="/usr/bin/nc -w 3 realwww 80"
arg0="/usr/bin/nc"
user="nobody"
default bind_addr=""
default bind_fail_max=-1
default bind_fail_interval=-1
default max_con_rate=-1
default max_copies=-1
default con_rate_offline=-1
default failrate_cnt=40
default failrate_interval=60
default inherit_env=TRUE
default tcp_trace=TRUE
default tcp_wrappers=FALSE


Privileges


To bind to a privileged port number nc needs to be granted the
net_privaddr privilege. If Solaris Trusted Extensions are configured and
the port nc should listen on is configured as a multi-level port nc also
needs the net_bindmlp privilege.


Privileges can be assigned to the user or role directly, by specifying
them in the account's default privilege set in user_attr(4). However,
this means that any application that this user or role starts have these
additional privileges. To only grant the privileges(5) when nc is
invoked, the recommended approach is to create and assign an rbac(5)
rights profile. See EXAMPLES for additional information.

EXAMPLES


Example 1: Using nc




Open a TCP connection to port 42 of host.example.com, using port 3141 as
the source port, with a timeout of 5 seconds:


$ nc -p 3141 -w 5 host.example.com 42


Open a UDP connection to port 53 of host.example.com:


$ nc -u host.example.com 53


Open a TCP connection to port 42 of host.example.com using 10.1.2.3 as
the IP for the local end of the connection:


$ nc -s 10.1.2.3 host.example.com 42


Use a list of ports and port ranges for a port scan on various ports:


$ nc -z host.example.com 21-25,53,80,110-120,443


Create and listen on a Unix Domain Socket:


$ nc -lU /var/tmp/dsocket


Create and listen on a UDP socket with associated port 8888:


$ nc -u -l -p 8888


which is the same as:


$ nc -u -l 8888


Create and listen on a TCP socket with associated port 2222 and bind to
address 127.0.0.1 only:


$ nc -l 127.0.0.1 2222


Connect to port 42 of host.example.com using an HTTP proxy at 10.2.3.4,
port 8080. This example could also be used by ssh(1). See the
ProxyCommand directive in ssh_config(4) for more information.


$ nc -x10.2.3.4:8080 -Xconnect host.example.com 42


The same example again, this time enabling proxy authentication with
username ruser if the proxy requires it:


$ nc -x10.2.3.4:8080 -Xconnect -Pruser host.example.com 42


To run nc with the smallest possible set of privileges as a user or role
that has additional privileges (such as the default root account) it can
be invoked using ppriv(1) as well. For example, limiting it to only run
with the privilege to bind to a privileged port:


$ ppriv -e -sA=basic,!file_link_any,!proc_exec,!proc_fork,\
!proc_info,!proc_session,net_privaddr nc -l 42


To allow a user or role to use only nc with the net_privaddr privilege, a
rights profile needs to be created:


/etc/security/exec_attr
Netcat privileged:solaris:cmd:::/usr/bin/nc:privs=net_privaddr

/etc/security/prof_attr
Netcat privileged:::Allow nc to bind to privileged ports:help=None.html


Assigning this rights profile using user_attr(4) permits the user or role
to run nc allowing it to listen on any port. To permit a user or role to
use nc only to listen on specific ports a wrapper script should be
specified in the rights profiles:


/etc/security/exec_attr
Netcat restricted:solaris:cmd:::/usr/bin/nc-restricted:privs=net_privaddr

/etc/security/prof_attr
Netcat restricted:::Allow nc to bind to privileged ports:help=None.html


and write a shell script that restricts the permissible options, for
example, one that permits one to bind only on ports between 42 and 64
(non-inclusive):


/usr/bin/nc-restricted:

#!/bin/sh
[ $# -eq 1 ] && [ $1 -gt 42 -a $1 -lt 64 ] && /usr/bin/nc -l -p "$1"


This grants the extra privileges when the user or role invokes nc using
the wrapper script from a profile shell. See pfsh(1), pfksh(1), pfcsh(1),
and pfexec(1).


Invoking nc directly does not run it with the additional privileges, and
neither does invoking the script without using pfexec or a profile shell.


ATTRIBUTES


See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:


+--------------------+-----------------+
| ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
+--------------------+-----------------+
|Interface Stability | See below. |
+--------------------+-----------------+


The package name is Committed. The command line syntax is Committed for
the -4, -6, -l, -n, -p ,-u, and -w options and their arguments (if any).
The name and port list arguments are Committed. The port range syntax is
Uncommitted. The interface stability level for all other command line
options and their arguments is Uncommitted.

SEE ALSO


cat(1), pfcsh(1), pfexec(1), pfksh(1), pfsh(1), ppriv(1), sed(1), ssh(1),
telnet(1), inetadm(1M), inetconv(1M), inetd(1M), ssh_config(4),
user_attr(4), attributes(5), privileges(5), rbac(5)

AUTHORS


The original implementation of nc was written by Hobbit,
hobbit@avian.org.


nc was rewritten with IPv6 support by Eric Jackson, ericj@monkey.org.

NOTES


UDP port scans always succeeds, that is, reports the port as open,
rendering the -uz combination of flags relatively useless.


April 9, 2009 NC(1)