MAKE(1) User Commands MAKE(1)


NAME


make - maintain, update, and regenerate related programs and files

SYNOPSIS


/usr/bin/make [-C directory] [-d] [-dd] [-D] [-DD] [-e]
[-i] [-j maxjobs] [-k] [-m {serial | parallel}]
[-n] [-p] [-P] [-q] [-r] [-s] [-S] [-t] [-V]
[-f makefile]... [-K statefile]... [target]...
[macro = value...]

/usr/bin/dmake [-C directory] [-d] [-dd] [-D] [-DD] [-e]
[-i] [-j maxjobs] [-k] [-m {serial | parallel}]
[-n] [-p] [-P] [-q] [-r] [-s] [-S] [-t] [-V]
[-f makefile]... [-K statefile]... [target]...
[macro = value...]


/usr/xpg4/bin/make [-d] [-dd] [-D] [-DD]
[-e] [-i] [-j maxjobs] [-k] [-m {serial | parallel}]
[-n] [-p] [-P] [-q] [-r] [-s] [-S] [-t] [-V]
[-f makefile]... [target]... [macro = value...]


DESCRIPTION


The make utility executes a list of shell commands associated with each
target, typically to create or update a file of the same name. makefile
contains entries that describe how to bring a target up to date with
respect to those on which it depends, which are called dependencies.
Since each dependency is a target, it can have dependencies of its own.
Targets, dependencies, and sub-dependencies comprise a tree structure
that make traces when deciding whether or not to rebuild a target.


The make utility recursively checks each target against its dependencies,
beginning with the first target entry in makefile if no target argument
is supplied on the command line. If, after processing all of its
dependencies, a target file is found either to be missing, or to be older
than any of its dependencies, make rebuilds it. Optionally with this
version of make, a target can be treated as out-of-date when the commands
used to generate it have changed since the last time the target was
built.


To build a given target, make executes the list of commands, called a
rule. This rule can be listed explicitly in the target's makefile entry,
or it can be supplied implicitly by make.


If no target is specified on the command line, make uses the first target
defined in makefile.


If a target has no makefile entry, or if its entry has no rule, make
attempts to derive a rule by each of the following methods, in turn,
until a suitable rule is found. Each method is described under Usage
below.

o Pattern matching rules.

o Implicit rules, read in from a user-supplied makefile.

o Standard implicit rules (also known as suffix rules),
typically read in from the file
/usr/share/lib/make/make.rules.

o SCCS retrieval. make retrieves the most recent version from
the SCCS history file (if any). See the description of the
.SCCS_GET: special-function target for details.

o The rule from the .DEFAULT: target entry, if there is such an
entry in the makefile.


If there is no makefile entry for a target, if no rule can be derived for
building it, and if no file by that name is present, make issues an error
message and halts.

OPTIONS


The following options are supported:

-C directory
Changes the current working directory to the directory
directory before attempting to open and process the
Makefile or run any targets. This option may be specified
more than once, each subsequent occurrence of the option
is dependent on those that came before it.


-d
Displays the reasons why make chooses to rebuild a
target. make displays any and all dependencies that are
newer. In addition, make displays options read in from
the MAKEFLAGS environment variable.


-dd
Displays the dependency check and processing in vast
detail.


-D
Displays the text of the makefiles read in.


-DD
Displays the text of the makefiles, make.rules file, the
state file, and all hidden-dependency reports.


-e
Environment variables override assignments within
makefiles.


-f makefile
Uses the description file makefile. A - as the makefile
argument denotes the standard input. The contents of
makefile, when present, override the standard set of
implicit rules and predefined macros. When more than one
-f makefile argument pair appears, make uses the
concatenation of those files, in order of appearance.

When no makefile is specified, /usr/bin/make tries the
following in sequence, except when in POSIX mode (see
.POSIX in Usage):

o If there is a file named makefile in the
working directory, make uses that file. If,
however, there is an SCCS history file
(SCCS/s.makefile) which is newer, make
attempts to retrieve and use the most recent
version.

o In the absence of the above file(s), if a file
named Makefile is present in the working
directory, make attempts to use it. If there
is an SCCS history file (SCCS/s.Makefile) that
is newer, make attempts to retrieve and use
the most recent version.
When no makefile is specified, /usr/bin/make in POSIX
mode and /usr/xpg4/bin/make try the following files in
sequence:

o ./makefile, ./Makefile

o s.makefile, SCCS/s.makefile

o s.Makefile, SCCS/s.Makefile


-i
Ignores error codes returned by commands. Equivalent to
the special-function target .IGNORE:.


-j maxjobs
Specify the maximum number of jobs that each instance of
make will invoke.


-k
When a nonzero error status is returned by a rule, or
when make cannot find a rule, abandons work on the
current target, but continues with other dependency
branches that do not depend on it.


-K statefile
Uses the state file statefile. A - as the statefile
argument denotes the standard input. The contents of
statefile, when present, override the standard set of
implicit rules and predefined macros. When more than one
-K statefile argument pair appears, make uses the
concatenation of those files, in order of appearance.
(See also .KEEP_STATE and .KEEP_STATE_FILE in the
Special-Function Targets section).


-m {serial | parallel}
Specify whether make should execute jobs serially or in
parallel. The default for make is to run serially unless
-j is specified. The default is for dmake is to run in
parallel.


-n
No execution mode. Prints commands, but does not execute
them. Even lines beginning with an @ are printed.
However, if a command line contains a reference to the
$(MAKE) macro, that line is always executed (see the
discussion of MAKEFLAGS in Reading Makefiles and the
Environment). When in POSIX mode, lines beginning with a
"+" are executed.


-p
Prints out the complete set of macro definitions and
target descriptions.


-P
Merely reports dependencies, rather than building them.


-q
Question mode. make returns a zero or nonzero status code
depending on whether or not the target file is up to
date. When in POSIX mode, lines beginning with a "+" are
executed.


-r
Does not read in the default makefile
/usr/share/lib/make/make.rules.


-s
Silent mode. Does not print command lines before
executing them. Equivalent to the special-function target
.SILENT:.


-S
Undoes the effect of the -k option. Stops processing when
a non-zero exit status is returned by a command.


-t
Touches the target files (bringing them up to date)
rather than performing their rules. Warning: This can be
dangerous when files are maintained by more than one
person. When the .KEEP_STATE: target appears in the
makefile, this option updates the state file just as if
the rules had been performed. When in POSIX mode, lines
beginning with a "+" are executed.


-V
Puts make into SysV mode. Refer to sysV-make(1) for
respective details.


OPERANDS


The following operands are supported:

target
Target names, as defined in Usage.


macro=value
Macro definition. This definition overrides any regular
definition for the specified macro within the makefile
itself, or in the environment. However, this definition
can still be overridden by conditional macro assignments.


USAGE


The usage of make is described below:

Reading Makefiles and the Environment


When make first starts, it reads the MAKEFLAGS environment variable to
obtain any of the following options specified present in its value: -C,
-d, -D, -e, -i, -k, -n, -p, -q, -r, -s, -S, or -t. Due to the
implementation of POSIX.2 (see POSIX.2(5), the MAKEFLAGS values contains
a leading - character. The make utility then reads the command line for
additional options, which also take effect.


Next, make reads in a default makefile that typically contains predefined
macro definitions, target entries for implicit rules, and additional
rules, such as the rule for retrieving SCCS files. If present, make uses
the file make.rules in the current directory; otherwise it reads the file
/usr/share/lib/make/make.rules, which contains the standard definitions
and rules. Use the directive:

include /usr/share/lib/make/make.rules


in your local make.rules file to include them.


Next, make imports variables from the environment (unless the -e option
is in effect), and treats them as defined macros. Because make uses the
most recent definition it encounters, a macro definition in the makefile
normally overrides an environment variable of the same name. When -e is
in effect, however, environment variables are read in after all makefiles
have been read. In that case, the environment variables take precedence
over definitions in the makefile.


Next, make reads any makefiles you specify with -f, or one of makefile or
Makefile as described above and then the state file, in the local
directory if it exists. If the makefile contains a .KEEP_STATE_FILE
target, then it reads the state file that follows the target. Refer to
special target .KEEP_STATE_FILE for details.


Next (after reading the environment if -e is in effect), make reads in
any macro definitions supplied as command line arguments. These override
macro definitions in the makefile and the environment both, but only for
the make command itself.


make exports environment variables, using the most recently defined
value. Macro definitions supplied on the command line are not normally
exported, unless the macro is also an environment variable.


make does not export macros defined in the makefile. If an environment
variable is set, and a macro with the same name is defined on the command
line, make exports its value as defined on the command line. Unless -e is
in effect, macro definitions within the makefile take precedence over
those imported from the environment.


The macros MAKEFLAGS, MAKE, SHELL, HOST_ARCH, HOST_MACH, and TARGET_MACH
are special cases. See Special-Purpose Macros below for details.

Makefile Target Entries


A target entry has the following format:

target [:|::] [dependency] ... [; command] ...
[command]
...


The first line contains the name of a target, or a space-separated list
of target names, terminated with a colon or double colon. If a list of
targets is given, this is equivalent to having a separate entry of the
same form for each target. The colon(s) can be followed by a dependency,
or a dependency list. make checks this list before building the target.
The dependency list can be terminated with a semicolon (;), which in turn
can be followed by a single Bourne shell command. Subsequent lines in the
target entry begin with a TAB and contain Bourne shell commands. These
commands comprise the rule for building the target.


Shell commands can be continued across input lines by escaping the
NEWLINE with a backslash (\). The continuing line must also start with a
TAB.


To rebuild a target, make expands macros, strips off initial TAB
characters and either executes the command directly (if it contains no
shell metacharacters), or passes each command line to a Bourne shell for
execution.


The first non-empty line that does not begin with a TAB or # begins
another target or macro definition.

Special Characters


Special characters are defined below.

Global
#
Start a comment. The comment ends at the next
NEWLINE. If the # follows the TAB in a command line,
that line is passed to the shell (which also treats #
as the start of a comment).


include filename
If the word include appears as the first seven
letters of a line and is followed by a SPACE or TAB,
the string that follows is taken as a filename to
interpolate at that line. include files can be nested
to a depth of no more than 38 nested makefiles. If
filename is a macro reference, it is expanded.


Targets and Dependencies
:

Target list terminator. Words following the colon are added to the
dependency list for the target or targets. If a target is named in
more than one colon-terminated target entry, the dependencies for all
its entries are added to form that target's complete dependency list.


::

Target terminator for alternate dependencies. When used in place of a
: the double-colon allows a target to be checked and updated with
respect to alternate dependency lists. When the target is out-of-date
with respect to dependencies listed in the first alternate, it is
built according to the rule for that entry. When out-of-date with
respect to dependencies in another alternate, it is built according
the rule in that other entry. Implicit rules do not apply to double-
colon targets; you must supply a rule for each entry. If no
dependencies are specified, the rule is always performed.


target [+ target...] :

Target group. The rule in the target entry builds all the indicated
targets as a group. It is normally performed only once per make run,
but is checked for command dependencies every time a target in the
group is encountered in the dependency scan.


%

Pattern matching wild card metacharacter. Like the * shell wild
card, % matches any string of zero or more characters in a target
name or dependency, in the target portion of a conditional macro
definition, or within a pattern replacement macro reference. Notice
that only one % can appear in a target, dependency-name, or pattern-
replacement macro reference.


./pathname

make ignores the leading ./ characters from targets with names given
as pathnames relative to "dot," the working directory.


Macros
=
Macro definition. The word to the left of this character is the
macro name; words to the right comprise its value. Leading and
trailing white space characters are stripped from the value. A
word break following the = is implied.


$
Macro reference. The following character, or the parenthesized
or bracketed string, is interpreted as a macro reference: make
expands the reference (including the $) by replacing it with the
macro's value.


( )
{ }
Macro-reference name delimiters. A parenthesized or bracketed
word appended to a $ is taken as the name of the macro being
referred to. Without the delimiters, make recognizes only the
first character as the macro name.


$$
A reference to the dollar-sign macro, the value of which is the
character $. Used to pass variable expressions beginning with $
to the shell, to refer to environment variables which are
expanded by the shell, or to delay processing of dynamic macros
within the dependency list of a target, until that target is
actually processed.


\$
Escaped dollar-sign character. Interpreted as a literal dollar
sign within a rule.


+=
When used in place of =, appends a string to a macro definition
(must be surrounded by white space, unlike =).


:=
Conditional macro assignment. When preceded by a list of targets
with explicit target entries, the macro definition that follows
takes effect when processing only those targets, and their
dependencies.


:sh =
Define the value of a macro to be the output of a command (see
Command Substitutions below).


:sh
In a macro reference, execute the command stored in the macro,
and replace the reference with the output of that command (see
Command Substitutions below).


Rules
+
make always executes the commands preceded by a "+", even when -n
is specified.


-
make ignores any nonzero error code returned by a command line
for which the first non-TAB character is a -. This character is
not passed to the shell as part of the command line. make
normally terminates when a command returns nonzero status, unless
the -i or -k options, or the .IGNORE: special-function target is
in effect.


@
If the first non-TAB character is a @, make does not print the
command line before executing it. This character is not passed to
the shell.


?
Escape command-dependency checking. Command lines starting with
this character are not subject to command dependency checking.


!
Force command-dependency checking. Command-dependency checking is
applied to command lines for which it would otherwise be
suppressed. This checking is normally suppressed for lines that
contain references to the ? dynamic macro (for example, $?).

When any combination of +, -, @, ?, or ! appear as the first
characters after the TAB, all that are present apply. None are
passed to the shell.


Special-Function Targets
When incorporated in a makefile, the following target names perform
special-functions:

.DEFAULT:
If it has an entry in the makefile, the rule for
this target is used to process a target when there
is no other entry for it, no rule for building it,
and no SCCS history file from which to retrieve a
current version. make ignores any dependencies for
this target.


.DONE:
If defined in the makefile, make processes this
target and its dependencies after all other
targets are built. This target is also performed
when make halts with an error, unless the .FAILED
target is defined.


.FAILED:
This target, along with its dependencies, is
performed instead of .DONE when defined in the
makefile and make halts with an error.


.GET_POSIX:
This target contains the rule for retrieving the
current version of an SCCS file from its history
file in the current working directory. make uses
this rule when it is running in POSIX mode.


.IGNORE:
Ignore errors. When this target appears in the
makefile, make ignores non-zero error codes
returned from commands. When used in POSIX mode,
.IGNORE could be followed by target names only,
for which the errors is ignored.


.INIT:
If defined in the makefile, this target and its
dependencies are built before any other targets
are processed.


.KEEP_STATE:
If this target is in effect, make updates the
state file, .make.state, in the current directory.
This target also activates command dependencies,
and hidden dependency checks. If either the
.KEEP_STATE: target appears in the makefile, or
the environment variable KEEP_STATE is set (setenv
KEEP_STATE), make rebuilds everything in order to
collect dependency information, even if all the
targets were up to date due to previous make runs.
See also the Environment Variables section. This
target has no effect if used in POSIX mode.


.KEEP_STATE_FILE:
This target has no effect if used in POSIX mode.
This target implies .KEEP_STATE. If the target is
followed by a filename, make uses it as the state
file. If the target is followed by a directory
name, make looks for a .make.state file in that
directory. If the target is not followed by any
name, make looks for .make.state file in the
current working directory.


.MAKE_VERSION:
A target-entry of the form:

.MAKE_VERSION: VERSION-number

enables version checking. If the version of make
differs from the version indicated by a string
like VERSION-1.0, make issues a warning message.


.NO_PARALLEL:
Dependencies of this target will be executed
serially.


.PARALLEL:
Dependencies of this target will be executed in
parallel.


.POSIX:
This target enables POSIX mode.


.PRECIOUS:
List of files not to delete. make does not remove
any of the files listed as dependencies for this
target when interrupted. make normally removes the
current target when it receives an interrupt. When
used in POSIX mode, if the target is not followed
by a list of files, all the file are assumed
precious.


.SCCS_GET:
This target contains the rule for retrieving the
current version of an SCCS file from its history
file. To suppress automatic retrieval, add an
entry for this target with an empty rule to your
makefile.


.SCCS_GET_POSIX:
This target contains the rule for retrieving the
current version of an SCCS file from its history
file. make uses this rule when it is running in
POSIX mode.


.SILENT:
Run silently. When this target appears in the
makefile, make does not echo commands before
executing them. When used in POSIX mode, it could
be followed by target names, and only those are
executed silently.


.SUFFIXES:
The suffixes list for selecting implicit rules
(see The Suffixes List).


.WAIT:
In a dependency list, wait until any dependency
preceding this has completed before moving on to
any dependency following it.


Clearing Special Targets
In this version of make, you can clear the definition of the following
special targets by supplying entries for them with no dependencies and no
rule:


.DEFAULT, .SCCS_GET, and .SUFFIXES

Command Dependencies


When the .KEEP_STATE: target is effective, make checks the command for
building a target against the state file. If the command has changed
since the last make run, make rebuilds the target.

Hidden Dependencies


When the .KEEP_STATE: target is effective, make reads reports from cpp(1)
and other compilation processors for any "hidden" files, such as #include
files. If the target is out of date with respect to any of these files,
make rebuilds it.

Macros


Entries of the form

macro=value


define macros. macro is the name of the macro, and value, which consists
of all characters up to a comment character or unescaped NEWLINE, is the
value. make strips both leading and trailing white space in accepting the
value.


Subsequent references to the macro, of the forms: $(name) or ${name} are
replaced by value. The parentheses or brackets can be omitted in a
reference to a macro with a single-character name.


Macro references can contain references to other macros, in which case
nested references are expanded first.

Suffix Replacement Macro References
Substitutions within macros can be made as follows:

$(name:string1=string2)


where string1 is either a suffix, or a word to be replaced in the macro
definition, and string2 is the replacement suffix or word. Words in a
macro value are separated by SPACE, TAB, and escaped NEWLINE characters.

Pattern Replacement Macro References
Pattern matching replacements can also be applied to macros, with a
reference of the form:

$(name: op%os= np%ns)


where op is the existing (old) prefix and os is the existing (old)
suffix, np and ns are the new prefix and new suffix, respectively, and
the pattern matched by % (a string of zero or more characters), is
carried forward from the value being replaced. For example:

PROGRAM=fabricate
DEBUG= $(PROGRAM:%=tmp/%-g)


sets the value of DEBUG to tmp/fabricate-g.


Notice that pattern replacement macro references cannot be used in the
dependency list of a pattern matching rule; the % characters are not
evaluated independently. Also, any number of % metacharacters can appear
after the equal-sign.

Appending to a Macro
Words can be appended to macro values as follows:

macro += word ...


Special-Purpose Macros
When the MAKEFLAGS variable is present in the environment, make takes
options from it, in combination with options entered on the command line.
make retains this combined value as the MAKEFLAGS macro, and exports it
automatically to each command or shell it invokes.


Notice that flags passed by way of MAKEFLAGS are only displayed when the
-d, or -dd options are in effect.


The MAKE macro is another special case. It has the value make by default,
and temporarily overrides the -n option for any line in which it is
referred to. This allows nested invocations of make written as:

$(MAKE) ...


to run recursively, with the -n flag in effect for all commands but make.
This lets you use make -n to test an entire hierarchy of makefiles.


For compatibility with the 4.2 BSD make, the MFLAGS macro is set from the
MAKEFLAGS variable by prepending a -. MFLAGS is not exported
automatically.


The SHELL macro, when set to a single-word value such as /usr/bin/csh,
indicates the name of an alternate shell to use. The default is /bin/sh.
Notice that make executes commands that contain no shell metacharacters
itself. Built-in commands, such as dirs in the C shell, are not
recognized unless the command line includes a metacharacter (for
instance, a semicolon). This macro is neither imported from, nor exported
to the environment, regardless of -e. To be sure it is set properly, you
must define this macro within every makefile that requires it.


The syntax of the VPATH macro is:

VPATH = [ pathname [ : pathname ] ... ]


VPATH specifies a list of directories to search for the files, which are
targets or dependencies, when make is executed. VPATH is also used in
order to search for the include files mentioned in the particular
makefile.


When processing a target or a dependency or an include directive, make
checks the existence of the file with the same name in the current
directory. If the file is found to be missing, make searches for this
file in the list of directories presented in VPATH (like the PATH
variable in the shell). Unlike the PATH variable, VPATH is used in order
to search for the files with relative pathnames. When make attempts to
apply implicit rules to the target, it also searches for the dependency
files using VPATH.


When the file is found using VPATH, internal macros $@, @<, $?, $*, and
their alternative forms (with D or F appended) are set in accordance with
the name derived from VPATH. For instance, if the target subdir/foo.o is
found in the directory /aaa/bbb using VPATH, then the value of the
internal macro $@ for this target is /aaa/bbb/subdir/foo.o.


If a target or a dependency file is found using VPATH, then any
occurrences of the word that is the same as the target name in the
subsequent rules are replaced with the actual name of the target derived
from VPATH.


For example:

VPATH=./subdir
file.o : file.c
cc -c file.c -o file.o


If file.c is found in ./subdir, then the command

cc -c ./subdir/file.c -o file.o


are executed.


The following macros are provided for use with cross-compilation:

HOST_ARCH
The processor type of the host system. By default, this is
the output of the mach(1) command, prepended with -. Under
normal circumstances, this value should never be altered
by the user.


HOST_MACH
The machine architecture of the host system. By default,
this is the output of the arch(1) command, prepended with
-. Under normal circumstances, this value should never be
altered by the user.


TARGET_ARCH
The processor type of the target system. By default, the
output of mach, prepended with -.


Dynamic Macros


There are several dynamically maintained macros that are useful as
abbreviations within rules. They are shown here as references; if you
were to define them, make would simply override the definition.

$*
The basename of the current target, derived as if selected for use
with an implicit rule.


$<
The name of a dependency file, derived as if selected for use with
an implicit rule.


$@
The name of the current target. This is the only dynamic macro
whose value is strictly determined when used in a dependency list.
(In which case it takes the form $$@.)


$?
The list of dependencies that are newer than the target. Command-
dependency checking is automatically suppressed for lines that
contain this macro, just as if the command had been prefixed with a
?. See the description of ?, under Special Character Rules above.
You can force this check with the ! command-line prefix.


$%
The name of the library member being processed. (See Library
Maintenance below.)


To refer to the $@ dynamic macro within a dependency list, precede the
reference with an additional $ character (as in, $$@). Because make
assigns $< and $* as it would for implicit rules (according to the
suffixes list and the directory contents), they can be unreliable when
used within explicit target entries.


These macros can be modified to apply either to the filename part, or the
directory part of the strings they stand for, by adding an upper case F
or D, respectively (and enclosing the resulting name in parentheses or
braces). Thus, $(@D) refers to the directory part of the string $@; if
there is no directory part, . is assigned. $(@F) refers to the filename
part.

Conditional Macro Definitions


A macro definition of the form:

target-list := macro = value


indicates that when processing any of the targets listed and their
dependencies, macro is to be set to the value supplied. Notice that if a
conditional macro is referred to in a dependency list, the $ must be
delayed (use $$ instead). Also, target-list can contain a % pattern, in
which case the macro is conditionally defined for all targets encountered
that match the pattern. A pattern replacement reference can be used
within the value.


You can temporarily append to a macros value with a conditional
definition of the form:

target-list := macro += value


Predefined Macros


make supplies the macros shown in the table that follows for compilers
and their options, host architectures, and other commands. Unless these
macros are read in as environment variables, their values are not
exported by make. If you run make with any of these set in the
environment, it is a good idea to add commentary to the makefile to
indicate what value each is expected to take. If -r is in effect, make
does not read the default makefile (./make.rules or
/usr/share/lib/make/make.rules) in which these macro definitions are
supplied.


+---------------------------+--------------+------------------------------------------+
|Table of Predefined Macros | | |
+---------------------------+--------------+------------------------------------------+
| Use | Macro | Default Value |
+---------------------------+--------------+------------------------------------------+
| Library | AR | ar |
| Archives | ARFLAGS | rv |
+---------------------------+--------------+------------------------------------------+
| | | |
| Assembler | AS | as |
| Commands | ASFLAGS | |
| | COMPILE.s | $(AS) $(ASFLAGS) |
| | COMPILE.S | $(CC) $(ASFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS) -c |
+---------------------------+--------------+------------------------------------------+
| | | |
| C | CC | cc |
| Compiler | CFLAGS | |
| Commands | CPPFLAGS | |
| | COMPILE.c | $(CC) $(CFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS) -c |
| | LINK.c | $(CC) $(CFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS) $(LDFLAGS) |
+---------------------------+--------------+------------------------------------------+
| | | |
| C++ | CCC | CC |
| Compiler | CCFLAGS | CFLAGS |
| Commands | CPPFLAGS | |
| | COMPILE.cc | $(CCC) $(CCFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS) -c |
| | LINK.cc | $(CCC) $(CCFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS) $(LDFLAGS) |
| | COMPILE.C | $(CCC) $(CCFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS) -c |
| | LINK.C | $(CCC) $(CCFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS) $(LDFLAGS) |
+---------------------------+--------------+------------------------------------------+
| | | |
| FORTRAN 77 | FC | f77 |
| Compiler | FFLAGS | |
| Commands | COMPILE.f | $(FC) $(FFLAGS) -c |
| | LINK.f | $(FC) $(FFLAGS) $(LDFLAGS) |
| | COMPILE.F | $(FC) $(FFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS) -c |
| | LINK.F | $(FC) $(FFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS) $(LDFLAGS) |
+---------------------------+--------------+------------------------------------------+
| | | |
| FORTRAN 90 | FC | f90 |
| Compiler | F90FLAGS | |
| Commands | COMPILE.f90 | $(F90C) $(F90FLAGS) -c |
| | LINK.f90 | $(F90C) $(F90FLAGS) $(LDFLAGS) |
| | COMPILE.ftn | $(F90C) $(F90FLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS) -c |
| | LINK.ftn | $(F90C) $(F90FLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS) |
| | | $(LDFLAGS) |
+---------------------------+--------------+------------------------------------------+
| | | |
| Link Editor | LD | ld |
| Command | LDFLAGS | |
+---------------------------+--------------+------------------------------------------+
| | | |
| lex | LEX | lex |
| Command | LFLAGS | |
| | LEX.l | $(LEX) $(LFLAGS) -t |
+---------------------------+--------------+------------------------------------------+
| | | |
| lint | LINT | lint |
| Command | LINTFLAGS | |
| | LINT.c | $(LINT) $(LINTFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS) |
+---------------------------+--------------+------------------------------------------+
| | | |
| Modula 2 | M2C | m2c |
| Commands | M2FLAGS | |
| | MODFLAGS | |
| | DEFFLAGS | |
| | COMPILE.def | $(M2C) $(M2FLAGS) $(DEFFLAGS) |
| | COMPILE.mod | $(M2C) $(M2FLAGS) $(MODFLAGS) |
+---------------------------+--------------+------------------------------------------+
| | | |
| Pascal | PC | pc |
| Compiler | PFLAGS | |
| Commands | COMPILE.p | $(PC) $(PFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS) -c |
| | LINK.p | $(PC) $(PFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS) $(LDFLAGS) |
+---------------------------+--------------+------------------------------------------+
| | | |
| Ratfor | RFLAGS | |
| Compilation | COMPILE.r | $(FC) $(FFLAGS) $(RFLAGS) -c |
| Commands | LINK.r | $(FC) $(FFLAGS) $(RFLAGS) $(LDFLAGS) |
+---------------------------+--------------+------------------------------------------+
| | | |
| rm Command | RM | rm -f |
+---------------------------+--------------+------------------------------------------+
| | | |
| sccs | SCCSFLAGS | |
| Command | SCCSGETFLAGS | -s |
+---------------------------+--------------+------------------------------------------+
| | | |
| yacc | YACC | yacc |
| Command | YFLAGS | |
| | YACC.y | $(YACC) $(YFLAGS) |
+---------------------------+--------------+------------------------------------------+
| | | |
| Suffixes List | SUFFIXES | .o .c .c~ .cc .cc~ .y .y~ .l .l~ .s .s~ |
| | | .sh .sh~ .S .S~ .ln .h .h~ .f .f~ .F .F~ |
| | | .mod .mod~ .sym .def .def~ .p .p~ .r .r~ |
| | | .cps .cps~ .C .C~ .Y .Y~ .L .L .f90 |
| | | .f90~ .ftn .ftn~ |
+---------------------------+--------------+------------------------------------------+

Implicit Rules


When a target has no entry in the makefile, make attempts to determine
its class (if any) and apply the rule for that class. An implicit rule
describes how to build any target of a given class, from an associated
dependency file. The class of a target can be determined either by a
pattern, or by a suffix; the corresponding dependency file (with the same
basename) from which such a target might be built. In addition to a
predefined set of implicit rules, make allows you to define your own,
either by pattern, or by suffix.

Pattern Matching Rules
A target entry of the form:

tp%ts:dp%ds
rule


is a pattern matching rule, in which tp is a target prefix, ts is a
target suffix, dp is a dependency prefix, and ds is a dependency suffix
(any of which can be null). The % stands for a basename of zero or more
characters that is matched in the target, and is used to construct the
name of a dependency. When make encounters a match in its search for an
implicit rule, it uses the rule in that target entry to build the target
from the dependency file. Pattern-matching implicit rules typically make
use of the $@ and $< dynamic macros as placeholders for the target and
dependency names. Other, regular dependencies can occur in the dependency
list; however, none of the regular dependencies can contain %. An entry
of the form:

tp%ts:[dependency ...] dp%ds[dependency ...]
rule


is a valid pattern matching rule.

Suffix Rules
When no pattern matching rule applies, make checks the target name to see
if it ends with a suffix in the known suffixes list. If so, make checks
for any suffix rules, as well as a dependency file with same root and
another recognized suffix, from which to build it.


The target entry for a suffix rule takes the form:

DsTs: rule


where Ts is the suffix of the target, Ds is the suffix of the dependency
file, and rule is the rule for building a target in the class. Both Ds
and Ts must appear in the suffixes list. (A suffix need not begin with a
. to be recognized.)


A suffix rule with only one suffix describes how to build a target having
a null (or no) suffix from a dependency file with the indicated suffix.
For instance, the .c rule could be used to build an executable program
named file from a C source file named file.c. If a target with a null
suffix has an explicit dependency, make omits the search for a suffix
rule.


+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Table of Standard | |
|Implicit (Suffix) | |
|Rules for Assembly | |
|Files | |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Implicit Rule Name | Command Line |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| .s.o | $(COMPILE.s) -o $@ $< |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .s.a | $(COMPILE.s) -o $% $< |
| | $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $% |
| | $(RM) $% |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .s~.o | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.s |
| | $(COMPILE.s) -o $@ $*.s |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .S.o | $(COMPILE.S) -o $@ $< |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .S.a | $(COMPILE.S) -o $% $< |
| | $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $% |
| | $(RM) $% |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .S~.o | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.S |
| | $(COMPILE.S) -o $@ $*.S |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .S~.a | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.S |
| | $(COMPILE.S) -o $% $*.S |
| | $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $% |
| | $(RM) $% |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+


+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Table of Standard | |
|Implicit (Suffix) | |
|Rules for C Files | |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Implicit Rule Name | Command Line |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| .c | $(LINK.c) -o $@ $< $(LDLIBS) |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .c.ln | $(LINT.c) $(OUTPUT_OPTION) -i $< |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .c.o | $(COMPILE.c) $(OUTPUT_OPTION) $< |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .c.a | $(COMPILE.c) -o $% $< |
| | $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $% |
| | $(RM) $% |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .c~ | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.c |
| | $(CC) $(CFLAGS) $(LDFLAGS) -o $@ $*.c |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .c~.o | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.c |
| | $(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c $*.c |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .c~.ln | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.c |
| | $(LINT.c) $(OUTPUT_OPTION) -c $*.c |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .c~.a | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.c |
| | $(COMPILE.c) -o $% $*.c |
| | $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $% |
| | $(RM) $% |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+


+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Table of Standard | |
|Implicit (Suffix) | |
|Rules for C++ | |
|Files | |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Implicit Rule Name | Command Line |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| .cc | $(LINK.cc) -o $@ $< $(LDLIBS) |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .cc.o | $(COMPILE.cc) $(OUTPUT_OPTION) $< |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .cc.a | $(COMPILE.cc) -o $% $< |
| | $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $% |
| | $(RM) $% |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .cc~ | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.cc |
| | $(LINK.cc) -o $@ $*.cc $(LDLIBS) |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .cc.o | $(COMPILE.cc) $(OUTPUT_OPTION) $< |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .cc~.o | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.cc |
| | $(COMPILE.cc) $(OUTPUT_OPTION) $*.cc |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .cc.a | $(COMPILE.cc) -o $% $< |
| | $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $% |
| | $(RM) $% |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .cc~.a | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.cc |
| | $(COMPILE.cc) -o $% $*.cc |
| | $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $% |
| | $(RM) $% |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .C | $(LINK.C) -o $@ $< $(LDLIBS) |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .C~ | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.C |
| | $(LINK.C) -o $@ $*.C $(LDLIBS) |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .C.o | $(COMPILE.C) $(OUTPUT_OPTION) $< |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .C~.o | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.C |
| | $(COMPILE.C) $(OUTPUT_OPTION) $*.C |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .C.a | $(COMPILE.C) -o $% $< |
| | $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $% |
| | $(RM) $% |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .C~.a | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.C |
| | $(COMPILE.C) -o $% $*.C |
| | $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $% |
| | $(RM) $% |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+


+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Table of Standard | |
|Implicit (Suffix) | |
|Rules for FORTRAN | |
|77 Files | |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Implicit Rule Name | Command Line |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| .f | $(LINK.f) -o $@ $< $(LDLIBS) |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .f.o | $(COMPILE.f) $(OUTPUT_OPTION) $< |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .f.a | $(COMPILE.f) -o $% $< |
| | $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $% |
| | $(RM) $% |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .f | $(LINK.f) -o $@ $< $(LDLIBS) |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .f~ | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.f |
| | $(FC) $(FFLAGS) $(LDFLAGS) -o $@ $*.f |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .f~.o | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.f |
| | $(FC) $(FFLAGS) -c $*.f |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .f~.a | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.f |
| | $(COMPILE.f) -o $% $*.f |
| | $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $% |
| | $(RM) $% |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .F | $(LINK.F) -o $@ $< $(LDLIBS) |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .F.o | $(COMPILE.F) $(OUTPUT_OPTION) $< |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .F.a | $(COMPILE.F) -o $% $< |
| | $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $% |
| | $(RM) $% |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .F~ | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.F |
| | $(FC) $(FFLAGS) $(LDFLAGS) -o $@ $*.F |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .F~.o | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.F |
| | $(FC) $(FFLAGS) -c $*.F |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .F~.a | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.F |
| | $(COMPILE.F) -o $% $*.F |
| | $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $% |
| | $(RM) $% |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+


+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Table of Standard | |
|Implicit (Suffix) | |
|Rules for FORTRAN | |
|90 Files | |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Implicit Rule Name | Command Line |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| .f90 | $(LINK.f90) -o $@ $< $(LDLIBS) |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .f90~ | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.f90 |
| | $(LINK.f90) -o $@ $*.f90 $(LDLIBS) |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .f90.o | $(COMPILE.f90) $(OUTPUT_OPTION) $< |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .f90~.o | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.f90 |
| | $(COMPILE.f90) $(OUTPUT_OPTION) $*.f90 |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .f90.a | $(COMPILE.f90) -o $% $< |
| | $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $% |
| | $(RM) $% |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .f90~.a | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.f90 |
| | $(COMPILE.f90) -o $% $*.f90 |
| | $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $% |
| | $(RM) $% |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .ftn | $(LINK.ftn) -o $@ $< $(LDLIBS) |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .ftn~ | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.ftn |
| | $(LINK.ftn) -o $@ $*.ftn $(LDLIBS) |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .ftn.o | $(COMPILE.ftn) $(OUTPUT_OPTION) $< |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .ftn~.o | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.ftn |
| | $(COMPILE.ftn) $(OUTPUT_OPTION) $*.ftn |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .ftn.a | $(COMPILE.ftn) -o $% $< |
| | $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $% |
| | $(RM) $% |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .ftn~.a | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.ftn |
| | $(COMPILE.ftn) -o $% $*.ftn |
| | $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $% |
| | $(RM) $% |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+


+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Table of Standard | |
|Implicit (Suffix) | |
|Rules for lex | |
|Files | |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Implicit Rule Name | Command Line |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| .l | $(RM) $*.c |
| | $(LEX.l) $< > $*.c |
| | $(LINK.c) -o $@ $*.c $(LDLIBS) |
| | $(RM) $*.c |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .l.c | $(RM) $@ |
| | $(LEX.l) $< > $@ |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .l.ln | $(RM) $*.c |
| | $(LEX.l) $< > $*.c |
| | $(LINT.c) -o $@ -i $*.c |
| | $(RM) $*.c |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .l.o | $(RM) $*.c |
| | $(LEX.l) $< > $*.c |
| | $(COMPILE.c) -o $@ $*.c |
| | $(RM) $*.c |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .l~ | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.l |
| | $(LEX) $(LFLAGS) $*.l |
| | $(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c lex.yy.c |
| | rm -f lex.yy.c |
| | mv lex.yy.c $@ |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .l~.c | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.l |
| | $(LEX) $(LFLAGS) $*.l |
| | mv lex.yy.c $@ |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .l~.ln | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.l |
| | $(RM) $*.c |
| | $(LEX.l) $*.l > $*.c |
| | $(LINT.c) -o $@ -i $*.c |
| | $(RM) $*.c |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .l~.o | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.l |
| | $(LEX) $(LFLAGS) $*.l |
| | $(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c lex.yy.c |
| | rm -f lex.yy.c |
| | mv lex.yy.c $@ |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+


+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Table of Standard | |
|Implicit (Suffix) | |
|Rules for Modula 2 | |
|Files | |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Implicit Rule Name | Command Line |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| .mod | $(COMPILE.mod) -o $@ -e $@ $< |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .mod.o | $(COMPILE.mod) -o $@ $< |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .def.sym | $(COMPILE.def) -o $@ $< |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .def~.sym | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.def |
| | $(COMPILE.def) -o$@ $*.def |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .mod~ | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.mod |
| | $(COMPILE.mod) -o $@ -e $@ $*.mod |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .mod~.o | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.mod |
| | $(COMPILE.mod) -o $@ $*.mod |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .mod~.a | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.mod |
| | $(COMPILE.mod) -o $% $*.mod |
| | $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $% |
| | $(RM) $% |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+


+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Table of Standard | |
|Implicit (Suffix) | |
|Rules for NeWS | |
|Files | |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Implicit Rule Name | Command Line |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| .cps.h | cps $*.cps |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| .cps~.h | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.cps |
| | $(CPS) $(CPSFLAGS) $*.cps |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+


+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Table of Standard | |
|Implicit (Suffix) | |
|Rules for Pascal | |
|Files | |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Implicit Rule Name | Command Line |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| .p | $(LINK.p) -o $@ $< $(LDLIBS) |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .p.o | $(COMPILE.p) $(OUTPUT_OPTION) $< |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .p~ | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.p |
| | $(LINK.p) -o $@ $*.p $(LDLIBS) |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .p~.o | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.p |
| | $(COMPILE.p) $(OUTPUT_OPTION) $*.p |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .p~.a | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.p |
| | $(COMPILE.p) -o $% $*.p |
| | $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $% |
| | $(RM) $% |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+


+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Table of Standard | |
|Implicit (Suffix) | |
|Rules for Ratfor | |
|Files | |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Implicit Rule Name | Command Line |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| .r | $(LINK.r) -o $@ $< $(LDLIBS) |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .r.o | $(COMPILE.r) $(OUTPUT_OPTION) $< |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .r.a | $(COMPILE.r) -o $% $< |
| | $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $% |
| | $(RM) $% |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .r~ | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.r |
| | $(LINK.r) -o $@ $*.r $(LDLIBS) |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .r~.o | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.r |
| | $(COMPILE.r) $(OUTPUT_OPTION) $*.r |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .r~.a | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.r |
| | $(COMPILE.r) -o $% $*.r |
| | $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $% |
| | $(RM) $% |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+


+-------------------+------------------------------------------+
|Table of Standard | |
|Implicit (Suffix) | |
|Rules for SCCS | |
|Files | |
+-------------------+------------------------------------------+
|Implicit Rule Name | Command Line |
+-------------------+------------------------------------------+
| .SCCS_GET | sccs $(SCCSFLAGS) get $(SCCSGETFLAGS) $@ |
| | -G$@ |
| | |
+-------------------+------------------------------------------+
| | |
| .SCCS_GET_POSIX | sccs $(SCCSFLAGS) get $(SCCSGETFLAGS) $@ |
+-------------------+------------------------------------------+
| | |
| .GET_POSIX | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) s.$@ |
+-------------------+------------------------------------------+


+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Table of Standard | |
|Implicit (Suffix) | |
|Rules for Shell | |
|Scripts | |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Implicit Rule Name | Command Line |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| .sh | cat $< >$@ |
| | chmod +x $@ |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .sh~ | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.sh |
| | cp $*.sh $@ |
| | chmod a+x $@ |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+


+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Table of Standard | |
|Implicit (Suffix) | |
|Rules for yacc | |
|Files | |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|Implicit Rule Name | Command Line |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| .y | $(YACC.y) $< |
| | $(LINK.c) -o $@ y.tab.c $(LDLIBS) |
| | $(RM) y.tab.c |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .y.c | $(YACC.y) $< |
| | mv y.tab.c $@ |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .y.ln | $(YACC.y) $< |
| | $(LINT.c) -o $@ -i y.tab.c |
| | $(RM) y.tab.c |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .y.o | $(YACC.y) $< |
| | $(COMPILE.c) -o $@ y.tab.c |
| | $(RM) y.tab.c |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .y~ | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.y |
| | $(YACC) $(YFLAGS) $*.y |
| | $(COMPILE.c) -o $@ y.tab.c |
| | $(RM) y.tab.c |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .y~.c | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.y |
| | $(YACC) $(YFLAGS) $*.y |
| | mv y.tab.c $@ |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .y~.ln | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.y |
| | $(YACC.y) $*.y |
| | $(LINT.c) -o $@ -i y.tab.c |
| | $(RM) y.tab.c |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| | |
| .y~.o | $(GET) $(GFLAGS) -p $< > $*.y |
| | $(YACC) $(YFLAGS) $*.y |
| | $(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c y.tab.c |
| | rm -f y.tab.c |
| | mv y.tab.o $@ |
+-------------------+-----------------------------------------+


make reads in the standard set of implicit rules from the file
/usr/share/lib/make/make.rules, unless -r is in effect, or there is a
make.rules file in the local directory that does not include that file.

The Suffixes List


The suffixes list is given as the list of dependencies for the .SUFFIXES:
special-function target. The default list is contained in the SUFFIXES
macro (See Table of Predefined Macros for the standard list of suffixes).
You can define additional .SUFFIXES: targets; a .SUFFIXES target with no
dependencies clears the list of suffixes. Order is significant within
the list; make selects a rule that corresponds to the target's suffix and
the first dependency-file suffix found in the list. To place suffixes at
the head of the list, clear the list and replace it with the new
suffixes, followed by the default list:

.SUFFIXES:
.SUFFIXES: suffixes $(SUFFIXES)


A tilde (~) indicates that if a dependency file with the indicated suffix
(minus the ~) is under SCCS its most recent version should be retrieved,
if necessary, before the target is processed.

Library Maintenance


A target name of the form:

lib(member ...)


refers to a member, or a space-separated list of members, in an ar(1)
library.


The dependency of the library member on the corresponding file must be
given as an explicit entry in the makefile. This can be handled by a
pattern matching rule of the form:

lib(%.s): %.s


where .s is the suffix of the member; this suffix is typically .o for
object libraries.


A target name of the form:

lib((symbol))


refers to the member of a randomized object library that defines the
entry point named symbol.

Command Execution


Command lines are executed one at a time, each by its own process or
shell. Shell commands, notably cd, are ineffectual across an unescaped
NEWLINE in the makefile. A line is printed (after macro expansion) just
before being executed. This is suppressed if it starts with a @, if there
is a .SILENT: entry in the makefile, or if make is run with the -s
option. Although the -n option specifies printing without execution,
lines containing the macro $(MAKE) are executed regardless, and lines
containing the @ special character are printed. The -t (touch) option
updates the modification date of a file without executing any rules. This
can be dangerous when sources are maintained by more than one person.


make invokes the shell with the -e (exit-on-errors) argument. Thus, with
semicolon-separated command sequences, execution of the later commands
depends on the success of the former. This behavior can be overridden by
starting the command line with a -, or by writing a shell script that
returns a non-zero status only as it finds appropriate.

Bourne Shell Constructs


To use the Bourne shell if control structure for branching, use a command
line of the form:

if expression ; \
then command ; \
... ; \
else command; \
... ; \
fi


Although composed of several input lines, the escaped NEWLINE characters
insure that make treats them all as one (shell) command line.


To use the Bourne shell for control structure for loops, use a command
line of the form:

for var in list ; \
do command; \
... ; \done


To refer to a shell variable, use a double-dollar-sign ($$). This
prevents expansion of the dollar-sign by make.

Command Substitutions


To incorporate the standard output of a shell command in a macro, use a
definition of the form:

MACRO:sh =command


The command is executed only once, standard error output is discarded,
and NEWLINE characters are replaced with SPACEs. If the command has a
non-zero exit status, make halts with an error.


To capture the output of a shell command in a macro reference, use a
reference of the form:

$(MACRO:sh)


where MACRO is the name of a macro containing a valid Bourne shell
command line. In this case, the command is executed whenever the
reference is evaluated. As with shell command substitutions, the
reference is replaced with the standard output of the command. If the
command has a non-zero exit status, make halts with an error.


In contrast to commands in rules, the command is not subject for macro
substitution; therefore, a dollar sign ($) need not be replaced with a
double dollar sign ($$).

Signals
INT, SIGTERM, and QUIT signals received from the keyboard halt make and
remove the target file being processed unless that target is in the
dependency list for .PRECIOUS:.

EXAMPLES


Example 1: Defining dependencies




This makefile says that pgm depends on two files a.o and b.o, and that
they in turn depend on their corresponding source files (a.c and b.c)
along with a common file incl.h:


pgm: a.o b.o
$(LINK.c) -o $@a.o b.o
a.o: incl.h a.c
cc -c a.c
b.o: incl.h b.c
cc -c b.c


Example 2: Using implicit rules




The following makefile uses implicit rules to express the same
dependencies:


pgm: a.o b.o
cc a.o b.o -o pgm
a.o b.o: incl.h


ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES


See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment variables
that affect the execution of make: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES,
and NLSPATH.


DMAKE_MAX_JOBS
The maximum number of jobs that each instance of make
should run.


DMAKE_ADJUST_MAX_JOBS
If YES adjust the maximum number of jobs each instance
of make runs based on system load. If NO do not


DMAKE_OUTPUT_MODE
Adjusts the format of output from make when executing
jobs in parallel.

If the value is TEXT1 make will print the hostname and
the command executed once when the job begins, and again
preceding any output from that job.

If the value is TEXT2 make will only print the command
and its output only once, when execution is complete.


DMAKE_MODE
Specify whether jobs should be executed in serial, or
parallel. Equivalent to passing the -m option.


KEEP_STATE
This environment variable has the same effect as the
.KEEP_STATE: special-function target. It enables command
dependencies, hidden dependencies and writing of the
state file.


USE_SVR4_MAKE
This environment variable causes make to invoke the
generic System V version of make (/usr/lib/svr4.make).
See sysV-make(1).


MAKEFLAGS
This variable is interpreted as a character string
representing a series of option characters to be used as
the default options. The implementation accepts both of
the following formats (but need not accept them when
intermixed):

1. The characters are option letters without the
leading hyphens or blank character separation
used on a command line.

2. The characters are formatted in a manner
similar to a portion of the make command
line: options are preceded by hyphens and
blank-character-separated. The macro=name
macro definition operands can also be
included. The difference between the contents
of MAKEFLAGS and the command line is that the
contents of the variable is not subjected to
the word expansions associated with parsing
the command line values. See wordexp(3C).

When the command-line options -f or -p are
used, they take effect regardless of whether
they also appear in MAKEFLAGS. If they
otherwise appear in MAKEFLAGS, the result is
undefined.
The MAKEFLAGS variable is accessed from the environment
before the makefile is read. At that time, all of the
options (except -f and -p) and command-line macros not
already included in MAKEFLAGS are added to the MAKEFLAGS
macro. The MAKEFLAGS macro is passed into the
environment as an environment variable for all child
processes. If the MAKEFLAGS macro is subsequently set by
the makefile, it replaces the MAKEFLAGS variable
currently found in the environment.


PROJECTDIR
Provides a directory to be used to search for SCCS files
not found in the current directory. In all of the
following cases, the search for SCCS files is made in
the directory SCCS in the identified directory. If the
value of PROJECTDIR begins with a slash, it shall be
considered an absolute pathname. Otherwise, the value of
PROJECTDIR is treated as a user name and that user's
initial working directory shall be examined for a
subdirectory src or source. If such a directory is
found, it shall be used. Otherwise, the value is used
as a relative pathname.

If PROJECTDIR is not set or has a null value, the search
for SCCS files shall be made in the directory SCCS in
the current directory. The setting of PROJECTDIR affects
all files listed in the remainder of this utility
description for files with a component named SCCS.


EXIT STATUS


When the -q option is specified, the make utility exits with one of the
following values:

0
Successful completion.


1
The target was not up-to-date.


>1
An error occurred.


When the -q option is not specified, the make utility exits with one of
the following values:

0
Successful completion


>0
An error occurred


FILES


makefile
Makefile

current version(s) of make description file


s.makefile
s.Makefile

SCCS history files for the above makefile(s) in the current directory


SCCS/s.makefile
SCCS/s.Makefile

SCCS history files for the above makefile(s)


make.rules

default file for user-defined targets, macros, and implicit rules


/usr/share/lib/make/make.rules

makefile for standard implicit rules and macros (not read if
make.rules is)


.make.state

state file in the local directory


ATTRIBUTES


See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

/usr/xpg4/bin/make

+----------------------------+-----------------------------+
| ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
+----------------------------+-----------------------------+
|Interface Stability | Committed |
+----------------------------+-----------------------------+
|Standard | See standards(5). |
+----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO


ar(1), arch(1), cd(1), cpp(1), lex(1), mach(1), sccs-get(1), sh(1), sysV-
make(1), yacc(1), wordexp(3C), passwd(4), attributes(5), environ(5),
POSIX.2(5), standards(5)


Solaris Advanced User's Guide

DIAGNOSTICS


Don't know how to make target target

There is no makefile entry for target, and none of make's implicit
rules apply (there is no dependency file with a suffix in the
suffixes list, or the target's suffix is not in the list).


*** target removed.

make was interrupted while building target. Rather than leaving a
partially-completed version that is newer than its dependencies, make
removes the file named target.


*** target not removed.

make was interrupted while building target and target was not present
in the directory.


*** target could not be removed, reason

make was interrupted while building target, which was not removed for
the indicated reason.


Read of include file `file' failed

The makefile indicated in an include directive was not found or was
inaccessible.


Loop detected when expanding macro value `macro'

A reference to the macro being defined was found in the definition.


Could not open temporary statefile `file'
Could not delete old statefile `file'

You used the .KEEP_STATE: target, but you do not have write
permission on the state file or on a temporary version of the file
written first.


***Error code n

The previous shell command returned a nonzero error code.


*** signal message

The previous shell command was aborted due to a signal. If - core
dumped appears after the message, a core file was created.


Conditional macro conflict encountered

Displayed only when -d is in effect, this message indicates that two
or more parallel targets currently being processed depend on a target
which is built differently for each by virtue of conditional macros.
Since the target cannot simultaneously satisfy both dependency
relationships, it is conflicted.


BUGS


Some commands return nonzero status inappropriately; to overcome this
difficulty, prefix the offending command line in the rule with a -.


Filenames with the characters =, :, or @, do not work.


You cannot build file.o from lib(file.o).


Options supplied by MAKEFLAGS should be reported for nested make
commands. Use the -d option to find out what options the nested command
picks up from MAKEFLAGS.


This version of make is incompatible in certain respects with previous
versions:

o The -d option output is much briefer in this version. -dd now
produces the equivalent voluminous output.

o make attempts to derive values for the dynamic macros $*, $<,
and $?, while processing explicit targets. It uses the same
method as for implicit rules; in some cases this can lead
either to unexpected values, or to an empty value being
assigned. (Actually, this was true for earlier versions as
well, even though the documentation stated otherwise.)

o make no longer searches for SCCS history (s.) files.

o Suffix replacement in macro references are now applied after
the macro is expanded.


There is no guarantee that makefiles created for this version of make
work with earlier versions.


If there is no make.rules file in the current directory, and the file
/usr/share/lib/make/make.rules is missing, make stops before processing
any targets. To force make to run anyway, create an empty make.rules file
in the current directory.


Once a dependency is made, make assumes the dependency file is present
for the remainder of the run. If a rule subsequently removes that file
and future targets depend on its existence, unexpected errors can result.


When hidden dependency checking is in effect, the $? macro's value
includes the names of hidden dependencies. This can lead to improper
filename arguments to commands when $? is used in a rule.


Pattern replacement macro references cannot be used in the dependency
list of a pattern matching rule.


Unlike previous versions, this version of make strips a leading ./ from
the value of the $@ dynamic macro.


With automatic SCCS retrieval, this version of make does not support
tilde suffix rules.


The only dynamic macro whose value is strictly determined when used in a
dependency list is $@ (takes the form $$@).


make invokes the shell with the -e argument. This cannot be inferred from
the syntax of the rule alone.


March 8, 2019 MAKE(1)