CSPLIT(1) User Commands CSPLIT(1)


csplit - split files based on context


csplit [-ks] [-f prefix] [-n number] file arg1... argn


The csplit utility reads the file named by the file operand, writes all
or part of that file into other files as directed by the arg operands,
and writes the sizes of the files.


The following options are supported:

-f prefix
Names the created files prefix00, prefix01, ..., prefixn.
The default is xx00 ... xxn. If the prefix argument would
create a file name exceeding 14 bytes, an error results. In
that case, csplit exits with a diagnostic message and no
files are created.

Leaves previously created files intact. By default, csplit
removes created files if an error occurs.

-n number
Uses number decimal digits to form filenames for the file
pieces. The default is 2.

Suppresses the output of file size messages.


The following operands are supported:

The path name of a text file to be split. If file is -, the
standard input will be used.

The operands arg1 ... argn can be a combination of the following:

Create a file using the content of the lines from the
current line up to, but not including, the line that
results from the evaluation of the regular expression
with offset, if any, applied. The regular expression
rexp must follow the rules for basic regular
expressions. Regular expressions can include the use of
'\/' and '\%'. These forms must be properly quoted with
single quotes, since "\" is special to the shell. The
optional offset must be a positive or negative integer
value representing a number of lines. The integer value
must be preceded by + or -. If the selection of lines
from an offset expression of this type would create a
file with zero lines, or one with greater than the
number of lines left in the input file, the results are
unspecified. After the section is created, the current
line will be set to the line that results from the
evaluation of the regular expression with any offset
applied. The pattern match of rexp always is applied
from the current line to the end of the file.

This operand is the same as /rexp/[offset], except that
no file will be created for the selected section of the
input file.

Create a file from the current line up to (but not
including) the line number line_no. Lines in the file
will be numbered starting at one. The current line
becomes line_no.

Repeat operand. This operand can follow any of the
operands described previously. If it follows a rexp
type operand, that operand will be applied num more
times. If it follows a line_no operand, the file will
be split every line_no lines, num times, from that

An error will be reported if an operand does not reference a line between
the current position and the end of the file.


See largefile(7) for the description of the behavior of csplit when
encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte (2^31 bytes).


Example 1: Splitting and combining files

This example creates four files, cobol00...cobol03.

example% csplit -f cobol filename \
'/procedure division/' /par5./ /par16./

After editing the split files, they can be recombined as follows:

example% cat cobol0[0-3] > filename

This example overwrites the original file.

Example 2: Splitting a file into equal parts

This example splits the file at every 100 lines, up to 10,000 lines. The
-k option causes the created files to be retained if there are less than
10,000 lines; however, an error message would still be printed.

example% csplit -k filename 100 {99}

Example 3: Creating a file for separate C routines

If prog.c follows the normal C coding convention (the last line of a
routine consists only of a } in the first character position), this
example creates a file for each separate C routine (up to 21) in prog.c.

example% csplit -k prog.c '%main(%' '/^}/+1' {20}


See environ(7) for descriptions of the following environment variables
that affect the execution of csplit: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE,


The following exit values are returned:

Successful completion.

An error occurred.


See attributes(7) for descriptions of the following attributes:

|CSI | Enabled |
|Interface Stability | Standard |


sed(1), split(1), attributes(7), environ(7), largefile(7), standards(7)


The diagnostic messages are self-explanatory, except for the following:

arg - out of range
The given argument did not reference a line
between the current position and the end of the

December 4, 2003 CSPLIT(1)