STANDARDS(5) Standards, Environments, and Macros STANDARDS(5)


NAME


standards, ANSI, C, C++, ISO, POSIX, POSIX.1, POSIX.2, SUS, SUSv2, SUSv3,
SVID, SVID3, XNS, XNS4, XNS5, XPG, XPG3, XPG4, XPG4v2 - standards and
specifications supported by Solaris

DESCRIPTION


Solaris 10 supports IEEE Std 1003.1 and IEEE Std 1003.2, commonly known
as POSIX.1 and POSIX.2, respectively. The following table lists each
version of these standards with a brief description and the SunOS or
Solaris release that first conformed to it.


POSIX Standard Description Release
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
POSIX.1-1988 system interfaces and headers SunOS 4.1
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
POSIX.1-1990 POSIX.1-1988 update Solaris 2.0
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
POSIX.1b-1993 realtime extensions Solaris 2.4
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
POSIX.1c-1996 threads extensions Solaris 2.6
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
POSIX.2-1992 shell and utilities Solaris 2.5
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
POSIX.2a-1992 interactive shell and utilities Solaris 2.5
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
POSIX.1-2001 POSIX.1-1990, POSIX.1b-1993, POSIX.1c-1996, POSIX.2-1992, and POSIX.2a-1992 updates Solaris 10


Solaris 10 also supports the X/Open Common Applications Environment
(CAE) Portability Guide Issue 3 (XPG3) and Issue 4 (XPG4); Single UNIX
Specification (SUS, also known as XPG4v2); Single UNIX Specification,
Version 2 (SUSv2); and Single UNIX Specification, Version 3 (SUSv3). Both
XPG4 and SUS include Networking Services Issue 4 (XNS4). SUSv2 includes
Networking Services Issue 5 (XNS5).


The following table lists each X/Open specification with a brief
description and the SunOS or Solaris release that first conformed to it.


X/Open CAE
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Specification Description Release
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
XPG3 superset of POSIX.1-1988 containing utilities from SVID3 SunOS 4.1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
XPG4 superset of POSIX.1-1990, POSIX.2-1992, and POSIX.2a-1992 containing extensions to POSIX standards from XPG3 Solaris 2.4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SUS (XPG4v2) superset of XPG4 containing historical BSD interfaces widely used by common application packages Solaris 2.6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
XNS4 sockets and XTI interfaces Solaris 2.6
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SUSv2 superset of SUS extended to support POSIX.1b-1993, POSIX.1c-1996, and ISO/IEC 9899 (C Standard) Amendment 1 Solaris 7
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
XNS5 superset and LP64-clean derivative of XNS4. Solaris 7
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SUSv3 same as POSIX.1-2001 Solaris 10


The XNS4 specification is safe for use only in ILP32 (32-bit)
environments and should not be used for LP64 (64-bit) application
environments. Use XNS5 or SUSv3, which have LP64-clean interfaces that
are portable across ILP32 and LP64 environments. Solaris releases 7
through 10 support both the ILP32 and LP64 environments.


Solaris releases 7 through 10 have been branded to conform to The Open
Group's UNIX 98 Product Standard. Solaris 10 has been branded to conform
to The Open Group's UNIX 03 Product Standard.


Solaris releases 2.0 through 10 support the interfaces specified by the
System V Interface Definition, Third Edition, Volumes 1 through 4
(SVID3). Note, however, that since the developers of this specification
(UNIX Systems Laboratories) are no longer in business and since this
specification defers to POSIX and X/Open CAE specifications, there is
some disagreement about what is currently required for conformance to
this specification.


When Sun Studio C Compiler 5.6 is installed, Solaris releases 2.0 through
10 support the ANSI X3.159-1989 Programming Language - C and ISO/IEC
9899:1990 Programming Language - C (C) interfaces.


When Sun Studio C Compiler 5.6 is installed, Solaris releases 7 through
10 support ISO/IEC 9899:1990 Amendment 1:1995: C Integrity.


When Sun Studio C Compiler 5.6 is installed, Solaris 10 supports ISO/IEC
9899:1999 Programming Languages - C.


When Sun Studio C++ Compiler 5.6 is installed, Solaris releases 2.5.1
through 10 support ISO/IEC 14882:1998 Programming Languages - C++.
Unsupported features of that standard are described in the compiler
README file.

Utilities


If the behavior required by POSIX.2, POSIX.2a, XPG4, SUS, or SUSv2
conflicts with historical Solaris utility behavior, the original Solaris
version of the utility is unchanged; a new version that is standard-
conforming has been provided in /usr/xpg4/bin. If the behavior required
by POSIX.1-2001 or SUSv3 conflicts with historical Solaris utility
behavior, a new version that is standard-conforming has been provided in
/usr/xpg4/bin or in /usr/xpg6/bin. If the behavior required by
POSIX.1-2001 or SUSv3 conflicts with POSIX.2, POSIX.2a, SUS, or SUSv2, a
new version that is SUSv3 standard-conforming has been provided in
/usr/xpg6/bin.


An application that wants to use standard-conforming utilitues must set
the PATH (sh(1) or ksh(1)) or path (csh(1)) environment variable to
specify the directories listed below in the order specified to get the
appropriate utilities:

SVID3, XPG3

1. /usr/ccs/bin

2. /usr/bin

3. directory containing binaries for your compiler

4. other directories containing binaries needed by the
application


POSIX.2, POSIX.2a, SUS, SUSv2, XPG4

1. /usr/xpg4/bin

2. /usr/ccs/bin

3. /usr/bin

4. directory containing binaries for your compiler

5. other directories containing binaries needed by the
application


POSIX.1-2001, SUSv3

1. /usr/xpg6/bin

2. /usr/xpg4/bin

3. /usr/ccs/bin

4. /usr/bin

5. directory containing binaries for your compiler

6. other directories containing binaries needed by the
application


Feature Test Macros


Feature test macros are used by applications to indicate additional sets
of features that are desired beyond those specified by the C standard. If
an application uses only those interfaces and headers defined by a
particular standard (such as POSIX or X/Open CAE), then it need only
define the appropriate feature test macro specified by that standard. If
the application is using interfaces and headers not defined by that
standard, then in addition to defining the appropriate standard feature
test macro, it must also define __EXTENSIONS__. Defining __EXTENSIONS__
provides the application with access to all interfaces and headers not in
conflict with the specified standard. The application must define
__EXTENSIONS__ either on the compile command line or within the
application source files.

1989 ANSI C, 1990 ISO C, 1999 ISO C
No feature test macros need to be defined to indicate that an application
is a conforming C application.

ANSI/ISO C++
ANSI/ISO C++ does not define any feature test macros. If the standard C++
announcement macro __cplusplus is predefined to value 199711 or greater,
the compiler operates in a standard-conforming mode, indicating C++
standards conformance. The value 199711 indicates conformance to ISO/IEC
14882:1998, as required by that standard. (As noted above, conformance
to the standard is incomplete.) A standard-conforming mode is not
available with compilers prior to Sun WorkShop C++ 5.0.


C++ bindings are not defined for POSIX or X/Open CAE, so specifying
feature test macros such as _POSIX_SOURCE, _POSIX_C_SOURCE, and
_XOPEN_SOURCE can result in compilation errors due to conflicting
requirements of standard C++ and those specifications.

POSIX


Applications that are intended to be conforming POSIX.1 applications must
define the feature test macros specified by the standard before including
any headers. For the standards listed below, applications must define
the feature test macros listed. Application writers must check the
corresponding standards for other macros that can be queried to determine
if desired options are supported by the implementation.


POSIX Standard Feature Test Macros
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
POSIX.1-1990 _POSIX_SOURCE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
POSIX.1-1990 and POSIX.2-1992 C-Language Bindings Option _POSIX_SOURCE and _POSIX_C_SOURCE=2
POSIX.1b-1993 _POSIX_C_SOURCE=199309L
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
POSIX.1c-1996 _POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
POSIX.1-2001 _POSIX_C_SOURCE=200112L


SVID3
The SVID3 specification does not specify any feature test macros to
indicate that an application is written to meet SVID3 requirements. The
SVID3 specification was written before the C standard was completed.

X/Open CAE
To build or compile an application that conforms to one of the X/Open CAE
specifications, use the following guidelines. Applications need not set
the POSIX feature test macros if they require both CAE and POSIX
functionality.

XPG3
The application must define _XOPEN_SOURCE. If
_XOPEN_SOURCE is defined with a value, the value must be
less than 500.


XPG4
The application must define _XOPEN_SOURCE and set
_XOPEN_VERSION=4. If _XOPEN_SOURCE is defined with a
value, the value must be less than 500.


SUS (XPG4v2)
The application must define _XOPEN_SOURCE and set
_XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED=1. If _XOPEN_SOURCE is defined
with a value, the value must be less than 500.


SUSv2
The application must define _XOPEN_SOURCE=500.


SUSv3
The application must define _XOPEN_SOURCE=600.


Compilation


A POSIX.1 (1988-1996)-, XPG4-, SUS-, or SUSv2-conforming implementation
must include an ANSI X3.159-1989 (ANSI C Language) standard-conforming
compilation system and the cc and c89 utilities. A POSIX.1-2001- or
SUSv3-conforming implementation must include an ISO/IEC 99899:1999 (1999
ISO C Language) standard-conforming compilation system and the c99
utility. Solaris 10 was tested with the cc, c89, and c99 utilities and
the compilation environment provided by Sun Studio C Compiler 5.6.


When cc is used to link applications, /usr/lib/values-xpg4.o must be
specified on any link/load command line, unless the application is
POSIX.1-2001- or SUSv3-conforming, in which case /usr/lib/values-xpg6.o
must be specified on any link/load compile line. The preferred way to
build applications, however, is described in the table below.


An XNS4- or XNS5-conforming application must include -l XNS on any
link/load command line in addition to defining the feature test macros
specified for SUS or SUSv2, respectively.


If the compiler suppports the redefine_extname pragma feature (the Sun
Studio C Compiler 5.6 compilers define the macro
__PRAGMA_REDEFINE_EXTNAME to indicate that it supports this feature),
then the standard headers use #pragma redefine_extname directives to
properly map function names onto library entry point names. This mapping
provides full support for ISO C, POSIX, and X/Open namespace
reservations.


If this pragma feature is not supported by the compiler, the headers use
the #define directive to map internal function names onto appropriate
library entry point names. In this instance, applications should avoid
using the explicit 64-bit file offset symbols listed on the lf64(5)
manual page, since these names are used by the implementation to name the
alternative entry points.


When using Sun Studio C Compiler 5.6 compilers, applications conforming
to the specifications listed above should be compiled using the utilities
and flags indicated in the following table:

Specification Compiler/Flags Feature Test Macros
_________________________________________________________________________
1989 ANSI C and 1990 ISO C c89 none
_________________________________________________________________________
1999 ISO C c99 none
_________________________________________________________________________
SVID3 cc -Xt -xc99=none none
_________________________________________________________________________
POSIX.1-1990 c89 _POSIX_SOURCE
_________________________________________________________________________
POSIX.1-1990 and POSIX.2-1992 c89 _POSIX_SOURCE and
C-Language Bindings Option POSIX_C_SOURCE=2
_________________________________________________________________________
POSIX.1b-1993 c89 _POSIX_C_SOURCE=199309L
_________________________________________________________________________
POSIX.1c-1996 c89 _POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L
_________________________________________________________________________
POSIX.1-2001 c99 _POSIX_C_SOURCE=200112L
_________________________________________________________________________
CAE XPG3 cc -Xa -xc99=none _XOPEN_SOURCE
_________________________________________________________________________
CAE XPG4 c89 _XOPEN_SOURCE and
_XOPEN_VERSION=4
_________________________________________________________________________
SUS (CAE XPG4v2) c89 _XOPEN_SOURCE and
(includes XNS4) _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED=1
_________________________________________________________________________
SUSv2 (includes XNS5) c89 _XOPEN_SOURCE=500
_________________________________________________________________________
SUSv3 c99 _XOPEN_SOURCE=600


For platforms supporting the LP64 (64-bit) programming environment,
SUSv2-conforming LP64 applications using XNS5 library calls should be
built with command lines of the form:

c89 $(getconf XBS5_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS) -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=500 \
$(getconf XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS) foo.c -o foo \
$(getconf XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LIBS) -lxnet


Similar SUSv3-conforming LP64 applications should be built with command
lines of the form:

c99 $(getconf POSIX_V6_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS) -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=600 \
$(getconf POSIX_V6_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS) foo.c -o foo \
$(getconf POSIX_V6_LP64_OFF64_LIBS) -lxnet


SUSv3
c99
_XOPEN_SOURCE=600


SEE ALSO


csh(1), ksh(1), sh(1), exec(2), sysconf(3C), system(3C), environ(5),
lf64(5)


November 8, 2014 STANDARDS(5)