LFCOMPILE(5) Standards, Environments, and Macros LFCOMPILE(5)


NAME


lfcompile - large file compilation environment for 32-bit applications

DESCRIPTION


All 64-bit applications can manipulate large files by default. The
methods described on this page allow 32-bit applications to manipulate
large files.


In the large file compilation environment, source interfaces are bound to
appropriate 64-bit functions, structures, and types. Compiling in this
environment allows 32-bit applications to access files whose size is
greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2^31 bytes).


Each interface named xxx() that needs to access 64-bit entities to access
large files maps to a xxx64() call in the resulting binary. All relevant
data types are defined to be of correct size (for example, off_t has a
typedef definition for a 64-bit entity).


An application compiled in this environment is able to use the xxx()
source interfaces to access both large and small files, rather than
having to explicitly utilize the transitional xxx64() interface calls to
access large files. See the lfcompile64(5) manual page for information
regarding the transitional compilation environment.


Applications can be compiled in the large file compilation environment by
using the following methods:

o Use the getconf(1) utility with one or more of the arguments
listed in the table below. This method is recommended for
portable applications.


+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| argument | purpose |
+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|LFS_CFLAGS | obtain compilation flags necessary to enable the large file compilation environment |
|LFS_LDFLAGS | obtain link editor options |
|LFS_LIBS | obtain link library names |
|LFS_LINTFLAGS | obtain lint options |
+--------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

o Set the compile-time flag _FILE_OFFSET_BITS to 64 before
including any headers. Applications may combine objects
produced in the large file compilation environment with
objects produced in the transitional compilation environment,
but must be careful with respect to interoperability between
those objects. Applications should not declare global
variables of types whose sizes change between compilation
environments.

Access to Additional Large File Interfaces


The fseek() and ftell() functions do not map to functions named fseek64()
and ftell64(); rather, the large file additions fseeko() and ftello(),
have functionality identical to fseek() and ftell() and do map to the
64-bit functions fseeko64() and ftello64(). Applications wishing to
access large files should use fseeko() and ftello() in place of fseek()
and ftell(). See the fseek(3C) and ftell(3C) manual pages for information
about fseeko() and ftello().


Applications wishing to access fseeko() and ftello() as well as the
POSIX and X/Open specification-conforming interfaces should define the
macro _LARGEFILE_SOURCE to be 1 and set whichever feature test macros are
appropriate to obtain the desired environment (see standards(5)).

EXAMPLES


In the following examples, the large file compilation environment is
accessed by invoking the getconf utility with one of the arguments listed
in the table above. The additional large file interfaces are accessed by
specifying -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE.


The examples that use the form of command substitution specifying the
command within parentheses preceded by a dollar sign can be executed only
in a POSIX-conforming shell such as the Korn Shell (see ksh(1)). In a
shell that is not POSIX-conforming, such as the Bourne Shell (see sh(1))
and the C Shell (see csh(1)), the getconf calls must be enclosed within
grave accent marks, as shown in the second example.

Example 1: Compile a program with a "large" off_t that uses fseeko(),


ftello(), and yacc.


The following example compiles a program with a "large" off_t and uses
fseeko(), ftello(), and yacc(1).


$ c89 -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE \
-D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64 -o foo \
$(getconf LFS_CFLAGS) y.tab.c b.o \
$(getconf LFS_LDFLAGS) \
-ly $(getconf LFS_LIBS)


Example 2: Compile a program with a "large" off_t that does not use


fseeko() and ftello() and has no application specific libraries.

% c89 -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64 \
`getconf LFS_CFLAGS` a.c \
`getconf LFS_LDFLAGS` \
`getconf LFS_LIBS` \


Example 3: Compile a program with a "default" off_t that uses fseeko() and


ftello().

$ c89 -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE a.c


SEE ALSO


csh(1), getconf(1), ksh(1), yacc(1), sh(1), fseek(3C), ftell(3C),
lf64(5), lfcompile64(5), standards(5)

NOTES


Certain system-specific or non-portable interfaces are not usable in the
large file compilation environment. Known cases are:

o Kernel data structures read from /dev/kmem.

o Interfaces in the kernel virtual memory library, -lkvm.

o Interfaces in the ELF access library, -lelf.

o Interfaces to /proc defined in <procfs.h>.

o The ustat(2) system call.


Programs that use these interfaces should not be compiled in the large
file compilation environment. As a partial safeguard against making this
mistake, including either of the <libelf.h> or <sys/procfs.h> header
files will induce a compilation error when the large file compilation
environment is enabled.


In general, caution should be exercised when using any separately-
compiled library whose interfaces include data items of type off_t or the
other redefined types either directly or indirectly, such as with 'struct
stat'. (The redefined types are off_t, rlim_t, ino_t, blkcnt_t,
fsblkcnt_t, and fsfilcnt_t.) For the large file compilation environment
to work correctly with such a library, the library interfaces must
include the appropriate xxx64() binary entry points and must have them
mapped to the corresponding primary functions when _FILE_OFFSET_BITS is
set to 64.


Care should be exercised using any of the printf() or scanf() routines on
variables of the types mentioned above. In the large file compilation
environment, these variables should be printed or scanned using long long
formats.

BUGS


Symbolic formats analogous to those found in <sys/int_fmtio.h> do not
exist for printing or scanning variables of the types that are redefined
in the large file compilation environment.


August 24, 2009 LFCOMPILE(5)