STRTOL(3C) Standard C Library Functions STRTOL(3C)


NAME


strtol, strtoll, atol, atoll, atoi, lltostr, ulltostr - string conversion
routines

SYNOPSIS


#include <stdlib.h>

long strtol(const char *restrict str, char **restrict endptr, int base);


long long strtoll(const char *restrict str, char **restrict endptr,
int base);


long atol(const char *str);


long long atoll(const char *str);


int atoi(const char *str);


char *lltostr(long long value, char *endptr);


char *ulltostr(unsigned long long value, char *endptr);


DESCRIPTION


strtol() and strtoll()
The strtol() function converts the initial portion of the string pointed
to by str to a type long int representation.


The strtoll() function converts the initial portion of the string pointed
to by str to a type long long representation.


Both functions first decompose the input string into three parts: an
initial, possibly empty, sequence of white-space characters (as specified
by isspace(3C)); a subject sequence interpreted as an integer represented
in some radix determined by the value of base; and a final string of one
or more unrecognized characters, including the terminating null byte of
the input string. They then attempt to convert the subject sequence to an
integer and return the result.


If the value of base is 0, the expected form of the subject sequence is
that of a decimal constant, octal constant or hexadecimal constant, any
of which may be preceded by a + or - sign. A decimal constant begins with
a non-zero digit, and consists of a sequence of decimal digits. An octal
constant consists of the prefix 0 optionally followed by a sequence of
the digits 0 to 7 only. A hexadecimal constant consists of the prefix 0x
or 0X followed by a sequence of the decimal digits and letters a (or A)
to f (or F) with values 10 to 15 respectively.


If the value of base is between 2 and 36, the expected form of the
subject sequence is a sequence of letters and digits representing an
integer with the radix specified by base, optionally preceded by a + or -
sign. The letters from a (or A) to z (or Z) inclusive are ascribed the
values 10 to 35; only letters whose ascribed values are less than that of
base are permitted. If the value of base is 16, the characters 0x or 0X
may optionally precede the sequence of letters and digits, following the
sign if present.


The subject sequence is defined as the longest initial subsequence of the
input string, starting with the first non-white-space character, that is
of the expected form. The subject sequence contains no characters if the
input string is empty or consists entirely of white-space characters, or
if the first non-white-space character is other than a sign or a
permissible letter or digit.


If the subject sequence has the expected form and the value of base is 0,
the sequence of characters starting with the first digit is interpreted
as an integer constant. If the subject sequence has the expected form and
the value of base is between 2 and 36, it is used as the base for
conversion, ascribing to each letter its value as given above. If the
subject sequence begins with a minus sign, the value resulting from the
conversion is negated. A pointer to the final string is stored in the
object pointed to by endptr, provided that endptr is not a null pointer.


In other than the POSIX locale, additional implementation-dependent
subject sequence forms may be accepted.


If the subject sequence is empty or does not have the expected form, no
conversion is performed; the value of str is stored in the object pointed
to by endptr, provided that endptr is not a null pointer.

atol(), atoll() and atoi()
Except for behavior on error, atol() is equivalent to: strtol(str, (char
**)NULL, 10).


Except for behavior on error, atoll() is equivalent to: strtoll(str,
(char **)NULL, 10).


Except for behavior on error, atoi() is equivalent to: (int) strtol(str,
(char **)NULL, 10).


If the value cannot be represented, the behavior is undefined.

lltostr() and ulltostr()
The lltostr() function returns a pointer to the string represented by the
long long value. The endptr argument is assumed to point to the byte
following a storage area into which the decimal representation of value
is to be placed as a string. The lltostr() function converts value to
decimal and produces the string, and returns a pointer to the beginning
of the string. No leading zeros are produced, and no terminating null is
produced. The low-order digit of the result always occupies memory
position endptr-1. The behavior of lltostr() is undefined if value is
negative. A single zero digit is produced if value is 0.


The ulltostr() function is similar to lltostr() except that value is an
unsigned long long.

RETURN VALUES


Upon successful completion, strtol(), strtoll(), atol(), atoll(), and
atoi() return the converted value, if any. If no conversion could be
performed, strtol() and strtoll() return 0 and errno may be set to
EINVAL.


If the correct value is outside the range of representable values,
strtol() returns LONG_MAX or LONG_MIN and strtoll() returns LLONG_MAX or
LLONG_MIN (according to the sign of the value), and errno is set to
ERANGE.


Upon successful completion, lltostr() and ulltostr() return a pointer to
the converted string.

ERRORS


The strtol() and strtoll() functions will fail if:

ERANGE
The value to be returned is not representable. The strtol() and
strtoll() functions may fail if:


EINVAL
The value of base is not supported.


USAGE


Because 0, LONG_MIN, LONG_MAX, LLONG_MIN, and LLONG_MAX are returned on
error and are also valid returns on success, an application wishing to
check for error situations should set errno to 0, call the function, then
check errno and if it is non-zero, assume an error has occurred.


The strtol() function no longer accepts values greater than LONG_MAX or
LLONG_MAX as valid input. Use strtoul(3C) instead.


Calls to atoi() and atol() might be faster than corresponding calls to
strtol(), and calls to atoll() might be faster than corresponding calls
to strtoll(). However, applications should not use the atoi(), atol(), or
atoll() functions unless they know the value represented by the argument
will be in range for the corresponding result type.

ATTRIBUTES


See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:


+--------------------+-----------------+
| ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
+--------------------+-----------------+
|Interface Stability | See below. |
+--------------------+-----------------+
|MT-Level | MT-Safe |
+--------------------+-----------------+


The strtol(), strtoll(), atol(), atoll(), and atoi() functions are
Standard.

SEE ALSO


isalpha(3C), isspace(3C), scanf(3C), strtod(3C), strtoul(3C),
attributes(5), standards(5)


May 6, 2003 STRTOL(3C)