GETTEXT(3C) Standard C Library Functions GETTEXT(3C)


NAME


gettext, dgettext, dcgettext, ngettext, dngettext, dcngettext,
textdomain, bindtextdomain, bind_textdomain_codeset - message handling
functions

SYNOPSIS


Solaris and GNU-compatible
#include <libintl.h>

char *gettext(const char *msgid);


char *dgettext(const char *domainname, const char *msgid);


char *textdomain(const char *domainname);


char *bindtextdomain(const char *domainname, const char *dirname);


#include <libintl.h>
#include <locale.h>

char *dcgettext(const char *domainname, const char *msgid,
int category);


GNU-compatible
#include <libintl.h>

char *ngettext(const char *msgid1, const char *msgid2,
unsigned long int n);


char *dngettext(const char *domainname, const char *msgid1,
const char *msgid2, unsigned long int n);


char *bind_textdomain_codeset(const char *domainname,
const char *codeset);


extern int _nl_msg_cat_cntr;
extern int *_nl_domain_bindings;


#include <libintl.h>
#include <locale.h>

char *dcngettext(const char *domainname, const char *msgid1,
const char *msgid2, unsigned long int n, int category);


DESCRIPTION


The gettext(), dgettext(), and dcgettext() functions attempt to retrieve
a target string based on the specified msgid argument within the context
of a specific domain and the current locale. The length of strings
returned by gettext(), dgettext(), and dcgettext() is undetermined until
the function is called. The msgid argument is a null-terminated string.


The ngettext(), dngettext(), and dcngettext() functions are equivalent to
gettext(), dgettext(), and dcgettext(), respectively, except for the
handling of plural forms. These functions work only with GNU-compatible
message catalogues. The ngettext(), dngettext(), and dcngettext()
functions search for the message string using the msgid1 argument as the
key and the n argument to determine the plural form. If no message
catalogues are found, msgid1 is returned if n == 1, otherwise msgid2 is
returned.


The NLSPATH environment variable (see environ(5)) is searched first for
the location of the LC_MESSAGES catalogue. The setting of the
LC_MESSAGES category of the current locale determines the locale used by
gettext() and dgettext() for string retrieval. The category argument
determines the locale used by dcgettext(). If NLSPATH is not defined and
the current locale is "C", gettext(), dgettext(), and dcgettext() simply
return the message string that was passed. In a locale other than "C",
if NLSPATH is not defined or if a message catalogue is not found in any
of the components specified by NLSPATH, the routines search for the
message catalogue using the scheme described in the following paragraph.


The LANGUAGE environment variable is examined to determine the GNU-
compatible message catalogues to be used. The value of LANGUAGE is a list
of locale names separated by a colon (':') character. If LANGUAGE is
defined, each locale name is tried in the specified order and if a GNU-
compatible message catalogue is found, the message is returned. If a
GNU-compatible message catalogue is found but failed to find a
corresponding msgid, the msgid string is return. If LANGUAGE is not
defined or if a Solaris message catalogue is found or no GNU-compatible
message catalogue is found in processing LANGUAGE, the pathname used to
locate the message catalogue is dirname/locale/category/domainname.mo,
where dirname is the directory specified by bindtextdomain(), locale is a
locale name, and category is either LC_MESSAGES if gettext(), dgettext(),
ngettext(), or dngettext() is called, or LC_XXX where the name is the
same as the locale category name specified by the category argument to
dcgettext() or dcngettext().


For gettext() and ngettext(), the domain used is set by the last valid
call to textdomain(). If a valid call to textdomain() has not been made,
the default domain (called messages) is used.


For dgettext(), dcgettext(), dngettext(), and dcngettext(), the domain
used is specified by the domainname argument. The domainname argument is
equivalent in syntax and meaning to the domainname argument to
textdomain(), except that the selection of the domain is valid only for
the duration of the dgettext(), dcgettext(), dngettext(), or dcngettext()
function call.


The textdomain() function sets or queries the name of the current domain
of the active LC_MESSAGES locale category. The domainname argument is a
null-terminated string that can contain only the characters allowed in
legal filenames.


The domainname argument is the unique name of a domain on the system. If
there are multiple versions of the same domain on one system, namespace
collisions can be avoided by using bindtextdomain(). If textdomain() is
not called, a default domain is selected. The setting of domain made by
the last valid call to textdomain() remains valid across subsequent calls
to setlocale(3C), and gettext().


The domainname argument is applied to the currently active LC_MESSAGES
locale.


The current setting of the domain can be queried without affecting the
current state of the domain by calling textdomain() with domainname set
to the null pointer. Calling textdomain() with a domainname argument of
a null string sets the domain to the default domain (messages).


The bindtextdomain() function binds the path predicate for a message
domain domainname to the value contained in dirname. If domainname is a
non-empty string and has not been bound previously, bindtextdomain()
binds domainname with dirname.


If domainname is a non-empty string and has been bound previously,
bindtextdomain() replaces the old binding with dirname. The dirname
argument can be an absolute or relative pathname being resolved when
gettext(), dgettext(), or dcgettext() are called. If domainname is a null
pointer or an empty string, bindtextdomain() returns NULL. User defined
domain names cannot begin with the string SYS_. Domain names beginning
with this string are reserved for system use.


The bind_textdomain_codeset() function can be used to specify the output
codeset for message catalogues for domain domainname. The codeset
argument must be a valid codeset name that can be used for the
iconv_open(3C) function, or a null pointer. If the codeset argument is
the null pointer, bind_textdomain_codeset() returns the currently
selected codeset for the domain with the name domainname. It returns a
null pointer if a codeset has not yet been selected. The
bind_textdomain_codeset() function can be used multiple times. If used
multiple times with the same domainname argument, the later call
overrides the settings made by the earlier one. The
bind_textdomain_codeset() function returns a pointer to a string
containing the name of the selected codeset. The string is allocated
internally in the function and must not be changed by the user.


The external variables _nl_msg_cat_cntr and _nl_domain_bindings are
provided for the compatibility with the GNU gettext() implementation.

RETURN VALUES


The gettext(), dgettext(), and dcgettext() functions return the message
string if the search succeeds. Otherwise they return the msgid string.


The ngettext(), dngettext(), and dcngettext() functions return the
message string if the search succeeds. If the search fails, msgid1 is
returned if n == 1. Otherwise msgid2 is returned.


The individual bytes of the string returned by gettext(), dgettext(),
dcgettext(), ngettext(), dngettext(), or dcngettext() can contain any
value other than NULL. If msgid is a null pointer, the return value is
undefined. The string returned must not be modified by the program and
can be invalidated by a subsequent call to bind_textdomain_codeset() or
setlocale(3C). If the domainname argument to dgettext(),dcgettext(),
dngettext(), or dcngettext() is a null pointer, the domain currently
bound by textdomain() is used.


The normal return value from textdomain() is a pointer to a string
containing the current setting of the domain. If domainname is a null
pointer, textdomain() returns a pointer to the string containing the
current domain. If textdomain() was not previously called and domainname
is a null string, the name of the default domain is returned. The name
of the default domain is messages. If textdomain() fails, a null pointer
is returned.


The return value from bindtextdomain() is a null-terminated string
containing dirname or the directory binding associated with domainname if
dirname is NULL. If no binding is found, the default return value is
/usr/lib/locale. If domainname is a null pointer or an empty string,
bindtextdomain() takes no action and returns a null pointer. The string
returned must not be modified by the caller. If bindtextdomain() fails, a
null pointer is returned.

USAGE


These functions impose no limit on message length. However, a text
domainname is limited to TEXTDOMAINMAX (256) bytes.


The gettext(), dgettext(), dcgettext(), ngettext(), dngettext(),
dcngettext(), textdomain(), and bindtextdomain() functions can be used
safely in multithreaded applications, as long as setlocale(3C) is not
being called to change the locale.


The gettext(), dgettext(), dcgettext(), textdomain(), and
bindtextdomain() functions work with both Solaris message catalogues and
GNU-compatible message catalogues. The ngettext(), dngettext(),
dcngettext(), and bind_textdomain_codeset() functions work only with GNU-
compatible message catalogues. See msgfmt(1) for information about
Solaris message catalogues and GNU-compatible message catalogues.

FILES


/usr/lib/locale

default path predicate for message domain files


/usr/lib/locale/locale/LC_MESSAGES/domainname.m o

system default location for file containing messages for language
locale and domainname


/usr/lib/locale/locale/LC_XXX/domainname.mo

system default location for file containing messages for language
locale and domainname for dcgettext() calls where LC_XXX is
LC_CTYPE, LC_NUMERIC, LC_TIME, LC_COLLATE, LC_MONETARY, or
LC_MESSAGES


dirname/locale/LC_MESSAGES/domainname .mo

location for file containing messages for domain domainname and path
predicate dirname after a successful call to bindtextdomain()


dirname/locale/LC_XXX/domainname.mo

location for files containing messages for domain domainname,
language locale, and path predicate dirname after a successful call
to bindtextdomain() for dcgettext() calls where LC_XXX is one of
LC_CTYPE, LC_NUMERIC, LC_TIME, LC_COLLATE, LC_MONETARY, or
LC_MESSAGES


ATTRIBUTES


See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:


+--------------------+----------------------+
| ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
+--------------------+----------------------+
|Interface Stability | See below. |
+--------------------+----------------------+
|MT-Level | Safe with exceptions |
+--------------------+----------------------+


The external variables _nl_msg_cat_cntr and _nl_domain_bindings are
Uncommitted.

SEE ALSO


msgfmt(1), xgettext(1), iconv_open(3C), libintl.h(3HEAD), setlocale(3C),
attributes(5), environ(5)


April 9, 2016 GETTEXT(3C)