STAT(2) System Calls STAT(2)


NAME


stat, lstat, fstat, fstatat - get file status

SYNOPSIS


#include <fcntl.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>

int stat(const char *restrict path, struct stat *restrict buf);


int lstat(const char *restrict path, struct stat *restrict buf);


int fstat(int fildes, struct stat *buf);


int fstatat(int fildes, const char *path, struct stat *buf,
int flag);


DESCRIPTION


The stat() function obtains information about the file pointed to by
path. Read, write, or execute permission of the named file is not
required, but all directories listed in the path name leading to the file
must be searchable.


The lstat() function obtains file attributes similar to stat(), except
when the named file is a symbolic link; in that case lstat() returns
information about the link, while stat() returns information about the
file the link references.


The fstat() function obtains information about an open file known by the
file descriptor fildes, obtained from a successful open(2), creat(2),
dup(2), fcntl(2), or pipe(2) function. If fildes references a shared
memory object, the system updates in the stat structure pointed to by the
buf argument only the st_uid, st_gid, st_size, and st_mode fields, and
only the S_IRUSR, S_IWUSR, S_IRGRP, S_IWGRP, S_IROTH, and S_IWOTH file
permission bits need be valid. The system can update other fields and
flags. The fstat() function updates any pending time-related fields
before writing to the stat structure.


The fstatat() function obtains file attributes similar to the stat(),
lstat(), and fstat() functions. If the path argument is a relative path,
it is resolved relative to the fildes argument rather than the current
working directory. If path is absolute, the fildes argument is unused.
If the fildes argument has the special value AT_FDCWD, relative paths are
resolved from the current working directory. If AT_SYMLINK_NOFOLLOW is
set in the flag argument, the function behaves like lstat() and does not
automatically follow symbolic links. See fsattr(5). If _ATTR_TRIGGER is
set in the flag argument and the vnode is a trigger mount point, the
mount is performed and the function returns the attributes of the root of
the mounted filesystem.


The buf argument is a pointer to a stat structure into which information
is placed concerning the file. A stat structure includes the following
members:

mode_t st_mode; /* File mode (see mknod(2)) */
ino_t st_ino; /* Inode number */
dev_t st_dev; /* ID of device containing */
/* a directory entry for this file */
dev_t st_rdev; /* ID of device */
/* This entry is defined only for */
/* char special or block special files */
nlink_t st_nlink; /* Number of links */
uid_t st_uid; /* User ID of the file's owner */
gid_t st_gid; /* Group ID of the file's group */
off_t st_size; /* File size in bytes */
time_t st_atime; /* Time of last access */
time_t st_mtime; /* Time of last data modification */
time_t st_ctime; /* Time of last file status change */
/* Times measured in seconds since */
/* 00:00:00 UTC, Jan. 1, 1970 */
long st_blksize; /* Preferred I/O block size */
blkcnt_t st_blocks; /* Number of 512 byte blocks allocated*/
char st_fstype[_ST_FSTYPSZ];
/* Null-terminated type of filesystem */


Descriptions of structure members are as follows:

st_mode
The mode of the file as described for the mknod() function.
In addition to the modes described on the mknod(2) manual
page, the mode of a file can also be S_IFSOCK if the file
is a socket, S_IFDOOR if the file is a door, S_IFPORT if
the file is an event port, or S_IFLNK if the file is a
symbolic link. S_IFLNK can be returned either by lstat() or
by fstat() when the AT_SYMLINK_NOFOLLOW flag is set.


st_ino
This field uniquely identifies the file in a given file
system. The pair st_ino and st_dev uniquely identifies
regular files.


st_dev
This field uniquely identifies the file system that
contains the file. Its value may be used as input to the
ustat() function to determine more information about this
file system. No other meaning is associated with this
value.


st_rdev
This field should be used only by administrative commands.
It is valid only for block special or character special
files and only has meaning on the system where the file was
configured.


st_nlink
This field should be used only by administrative commands.


st_uid
The user ID of the file's owner.


st_gid
The group ID of the file's group.


st_size
For regular files, this is the address of the end of the
file. For block special or character special, this is not
defined. See also pipe(2).


st_atime
Time when file data was last accessed. Some of the
functions that change this member are: creat(), mknod(),
pipe(), utime(2), and read(2).


st_mtime
Time when data was last modified. Some of the functions
that change this member are: creat(), mknod(), pipe(),
utime(), and write(2).


st_ctime
Time when file status was last changed. Some of the
functions that change this member are: chmod(2), chown(2),
creat(2), link(2), mknod(2), pipe(2), rename(2), unlink(2),
utime(2), and write(2).


st_blksize
A hint as to the "best" unit size for I/O operations. This
field is not defined for block special or character special
files.


st_blocks
The total number of physical blocks of size 512 bytes
actually allocated on disk. This field is not defined for
block special or character special files.


st_fstype
A null-teminated string that uniquely identifies the type
of the filesystem that contains the file.


RETURN VALUES


Upon successful completion, 0 is returned. Otherwise, -1 is returned and
errno is set to indicate the error.

ERRORS


The stat(), fstat(), lstat(), and fstatat() functions will fail if:

EIO
An error occurred while reading from the file system.


EOVERFLOW
The file size in bytes or the number of blocks allocated to
the file or the file serial number cannot be represented
correctly in the structure pointed to by buf.


The stat(), lstat(), and fstatat() functions will fail if:

EACCES
Search permission is denied for a component of the path
prefix.


EFAULT
The buf or path argument points to an illegal address.


EINTR
A signal was caught during the execution of the stat()
or lstat() function.


ELOOP
A loop exists in symbolic links encountered during the
resolution of the path argument.


ENAMETOOLONG
The length of the path argument exceeds {PATH_MAX}, or
the length of a path component exceeds {NAME_MAX} while
_POSIX_NO_TRUNC is in effect.


ENOENT
A component of path does not name an existing file or
path is an empty string.


ENOLINK
The path argument points to a remote machine and the link
to that machine is no longer active.


ENOTDIR
A component of the path prefix is not a directory, or the
fildes argument does not refer to a valid directory when
given a non-null relative path.


The fstat() and fstatat() functions will fail if:

EBADF
The fildes argument is not a valid open file descriptor. The
fildes argument to fstatat() can also have the valid value of
AT_FDCWD.


EFAULT
The buf argument points to an illegal address.


EINTR
A signal was caught during the execution of the fstat()
function.


ENOLINK
The fildes argument points to a remote machine and the link to
that machine is no longer active.


The stat(), fstat(), and lstat() functions may fail if:

EOVERFLOW
One of the members is too large to store in the stat
structure pointed to by buf.


The stat() and lstat() functions may fail if:

ELOOP
More than {SYMLOOP_MAX} symbolic links were encountered
during the resolution of the path argument.


ENAMETOOLONG
As a result of encountering a symbolic link in resolution
of thepath argument, the length of the substituted
pathname strings exceeds {PATH_MAX}.


The stat() and fstatat() functions may fail if:

ENXIO
The path argument names a character or block device special file
and the corresponding I/O device has been retired by the fault
management framework.


EXAMPLES


Example 1: Use stat() to obtain file status information.




The following example shows how to obtain file status information for a
file named /home/cnd/mod1. The structure variable buffer is defined for
the stat structure.


#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
struct stat buffer;
int status;
...
status = stat("/home/cnd/mod1", &buffer);


Example 2: Use stat() to get directory information.




The following example fragment gets status information for each entry in
a directory. The call to the stat() function stores file information in
the stat structure pointed to by statbuf. The lines that follow the
stat() call format the fields in the stat structure for presentation to
the user of the program.


#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <dirent.h>
#include <pwd.h>
#include <grp.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <locale.h>
#include <langinfo.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdint.h>
struct dirent *dp;
struct stat statbuf;
struct passwd *pwd;
struct group *grp;
struct tm *tm;
char datestring[256];
...
/* Loop through directory entries */
while ((dp = readdir(dir)) != NULL) {
/* Get entry's information. */
if (stat(dp->d_name, &statbuf) == -1)
continue;

/* Print out type, permissions, and number of links. */
printf("%10.10s", sperm (statbuf.st_mode));
printf("%4d", statbuf.st_nlink);

/* Print out owners name if it is found using getpwuid(). */
if ((pwd = getpwuid(statbuf.st_uid)) != NULL)
printf(" %-8.8s", pwd->pw_name);
else
printf(" %-8d", statbuf.st_uid);

/* Print out group name if it's found using getgrgid(). */
if ((grp = getgrgid(statbuf.st_gid)) != NULL)
printf(" %-8.8s", grp->gr_name);
else
printf(" %-8d", statbuf.st_gid);

/* Print size of file. */
printf(" %9jd", (intmax_t)statbuf.st_size);
tm = localtime(&statbuf.st_mtime);

/* Get localized date string. */
strftime(datestring, sizeof(datestring), nl_langinfo(D_T_FMT), tm);

printf(" %s %s\n", datestring, dp->d_name);
}


Example 3: Use fstat() to obtain file status information.




The following example shows how to obtain file status information for a
file named /home/cnd/mod1. The structure variable buffer is defined for
the stat structure. The /home/cnd/mod1 file is opened with read/write
privileges and is passed to the open file descriptor fildes.


#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
struct stat buffer;
int status;
...
fildes = open("/home/cnd/mod1", O_RDWR);
status = fstat(fildes, &buffer);


Example 4: Use lstat() to obtain symbolic link status information.




The following example shows how to obtain status information for a
symbolic link named /modules/pass1. The structure variable buffer is
defined for the stat structure. If the path argument specified the
filename for the file pointed to by the symbolic link (/home/cnd/mod1),
the results of calling the function would be the same as those returned
by a call to the stat() function.


#include <sys/stat.h>
struct stat buffer;
int status;
...
status = lstat("/modules/pass1", &buffer);


USAGE


If chmod() or fchmod() is used to change the file group owner permissions
on a file with non-trivial ACL entries, only the ACL mask is set to the
new permissions and the group owner permission bits in the file's mode
field (defined in mknod(2)) are unchanged. A non-trivial ACL entry is
one whose meaning cannot be represented in the file's mode field alone.
The new ACL mask permissions might change the effective permissions for
additional users and groups that have ACL entries on the file.


The stat(), fstat(), and lstat() functions have transitional interfaces
for 64-bit file offsets. See lf64(5).

ATTRIBUTES


See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:


+--------------------+-------------------+
| ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|Interface Stability | Committed |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|MT-Level | Async-Signal-Safe |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|Standard | See below. |
+--------------------+-------------------+


For stat(), fstat(), and lstat(), see standards(5).

SEE ALSO


access(2), chmod(2), chown(2), creat(2), link(2), mknod(2), pipe(2),
read(2), time(2), unlink(2), utime(2), write(2), fattach(3C),
stat.h(3HEAD), attributes(5), fsattr(5), lf64(5), standards(5)


October 10, 2007 STAT(2)