CD(1) User Commands CD(1)


NAME


cd, chdir, pushd, popd, dirs - change working directory

SYNOPSIS


/usr/bin/cd [directory]


sh
cd [argument]


chdir [argument]


csh
cd [dir]


chdir [dir]


pushd [+n | dir]


popd [+n]


dirs [-l]


ksh, ksh93
cd [-L] [-P] [arg]


cd old new


DESCRIPTION


/usr/bin/cd
The /usr/bin/cd utility changes the current directory in the context of
the cd utility only. This is in contrast to the version built into the
shell. /usr/bin/cd has no effect on the invoking process but can be used
to determine whether or not a given directory can be set as the current
directory.

sh
The Bourne shell built-in cd changes the current directory to argument.
The shell parameter HOME is the default argument. The shell parameter
CDPATH defines the search path for the directory containing argument.
Alternative directory names are separated by a colon (:). The default
path is <null> (specifying the current directory). The current directory
is specified by a null path name, which can appear immediately after the
equal sign or between the colon delimiters anywhere else in the path
list. If argument begins with `/', `.', or `..', the search path is not
used. Otherwise, each directory in the path is searched for argument. cd
must have execute (search) permission in argument. Because a new process
is created to execute each command, cd would be ineffective if it were
written as a normal command; therefore, it is recognized by and is
internal to the shell. (See pwd(1), sh(1), and chdir(2)).


chdir is just another way to call cd.

csh
If dir is not specified, the C shell built-in cd uses the value of shell
parameter HOME as the new working directory. If dir specifies a complete
path starting with `/', `.', or `..', dir becomes the new working
directory. If neither case applies, cd tries to find the designated
directory relative to one of the paths specified by the CDPATH shell
variable. CDPATH has the same syntax as, and similar semantics to, the
PATH shell variable. cd must have execute (search) permission in dir.
Because a new process is created to execute each command, cd would be
ineffective if it were written as a normal command; therefore, it is
recognized by and is internal to the C-shell. (See pwd(1), sh(1), and
chdir(2)).


chdir changes the shell's working directory to directory dir. If no
argument is given, change to the home directory of the user. If dir is a
relative pathname not found in the current directory, check for it in
those directories listed in the cdpath variable. If dir is the name of a
shell variable whose value starts with a /, change to the directory named
by that value.


pushd pushes a directory onto the directory stack. With no arguments,
exchange the top two elements.

+n
Rotate the n'th entry to the top of the stack and cd to it.


dir
Push the current working directory onto the stack and change to
dir.


popd pops the directory stack and cd to the new top directory. The
elements of the directory stack are numbered from 0 starting at the top.

+n
Discard the n'th entry in the stack.


dirs prints the directory stack, most recent to the left; the first
directory shown is the current directory. With the -l argument, produce
an unabbreviated printout; use of the ~ notation is suppressed.

ksh, ksh93
The Korn shell built-in cd command can be in either of two forms. In the
first form it changes the current directory to arg. If arg is - the
directory is changed to the previous directory. The shell variable HOME
is the default arg. The environment variable PWD is set to the current
directory. If the PWD is changed, the OLDPWD environment variable shall
also be changed to the value of the old working directory, that is, the
current working directory immediately prior to the call to change
directory (cd). The shell variable CDPATH defines the search path for the
directory containing arg. Alternative directory names are separated by a
colon (:). The default path is null (specifying the current directory).
The current directory is specified by a null path name, which can appear
immediately after the equal sign or between the colon delimiters anywhere
else in the path list. If arg begins with a `/', `.', or `..', then the
search path is not used. Otherwise, each directory in the path is
searched for arg. If unsuccessful, cd attempts to change directories to
the pathname formed by the concatenation of the value of PWD, a slash
character, and arg.

-L
Handles the operation dot-dot (..) logically. Symbolic link
components are not resolved before dot-dot components are
processed.


-P
Handles the operand dot-dot physically. Symbolic link components
are resolved before dot-dot components are processed.


If both -L and -P options are specified, the last option to be invoked is
used and the other is ignored. If neither -L nor -P is specified, the
operand is handled dot-dot logically.


The second form of cd substitutes the string new for the string old in
the current directory name, PWD and tries to change to this new
directory.


The cd command cannot be executed by rksh. Because a new process is
created to execute each command, cd would be ineffective if it were
written as a normal command; therefore, it is recognized by and is
internal to the Korn shell. (See pwd(1), sh(1), and chdir(2)).

OPERANDS


The following operands are supported:

directory
An absolute or relative pathname of the directory that
becomes the new working directory. The interpretation of a
relative pathname by cd depends on the CDPATH environment
variable.


OUTPUT


If a non-empty directory name from CDPATH is used, an absolute pathname
of the new working directory is written to the standard output as
follows:


"%s\n", <new directory>


Otherwise, there is no output.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES


See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment variables
that affect the execution of cd: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and
NLSPATH.

CDPATH
A colon-separated list of pathnames that refer to directories.
If the directory operand does not begin with a slash ( / )
character, and the first component is not dot or dot-dot, cd
searches for directory relative to each directory named in the
CDPATH variable, in the order listed. The new working directory
sets to the first matching directory found. An empty string in
place of a directory pathname represents the current directory.
If CDPATH is not set, it is treated as if it were an empty
string.


HOME
The name of the home directory, used when no directory operand
is specified.


OLDPWD
A pathname of the previous working directory, used by cd-.


PWD
A pathname of the current working directory, set by cd after it
has changed to that directory.


EXIT STATUS


The following exit values are returned by cd:

0
The directory was successfully changed.


>0
An error occurred.


ATTRIBUTES


See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

csh, ksh, sh

+--------------------+-------------------+
| ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|Interface Stability | Committed |
+--------------------+-------------------+
|Standard | See standards(5). |
+--------------------+-------------------+

ksh93

+--------------------+-----------------+
| ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
+--------------------+-----------------+
|Interface Stability | Uncommitted |
+--------------------+-----------------+

SEE ALSO


csh(1), ksh(1), ksh93(1), pwd(1), sh(1), chdir(2), attributes(5),
environ(5), standards(5)


April 8, 2008 CD(1)